Web Survey Bibliography
Although many web-based studies have investigated scale types using radio buttons and numeric box entry, very few studies have examined the possibility of use of visual scales like a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) or Graphic Rating Scale (GRS). Funke (2005, GOR) conducted an initial study of respondent utilization of a VAS. As part of a larger study, we manipulated 4 factors for 6998 respondents (US 18+): topic - political or grocery store; element differentiation - high versus low differentiation; scale type - VAS with 5, 2 o~ no segments or a 5 segment GRS; banking - banked or not banked.
Respondents rated the importance of a set of 5 items (either political priorities or features of a grocery store). Immediately following, they rated their impressions concerning the scales (difficulty, accuracy, interest). Using a standard grid format,
they were then asked to rate how much each feature would affect their intention (political issues: likelihood to vote for a spending increase for the issue; grocery store: likelihood to shop at a store with the feature).
Banking all 5 items on the same screen took about 11.75 seconds less for respondents to complete than presenting each scale one at a time. All scales were perceived as generally easy to do, though there was a significant ma in effect for scale type (F(7,6966)=2.18, p<.05), with the 2 segment VAS banked on a single screen being perceived as more difficult. For perceived accuracy, the no segment VAS not banked came out as lower than the other scales (F(7,6966)=2.66, p<.01). We then examined the extent of criterion-related validity (the correlation of importance with likelihood), and found a significant effect for scale type (F(7,6966)=2.87, p<.01) with the 5 segment VAS and GRS not banked showing higher criterion-related validity than the banked versions (average proportion of variance = .492 and .501 versus .457 and .475, respectively). We will also present some distributional differences that we observed between the scale types. In general, the 5 segment GRS had lower means, whether banked or not.
Web Survey Bibliography - Thomas, R. K. (70)
- Alone in a Group: Comparison of Effects of a Group-Administered Paper-Pencil Survey Versus an Individually...; 2013; Higgins, W. B., Barlas, F. M., Pflieger, J., Thomas, R. K., Jeffery, D., Mattiko, M.
- Watch Your Language!: The Impact of the Survey Language on Bilingual Hispanics’ Response Process...; 2013; Ay, M., Gross, W., Cobb, C. L., Thomas, R. K.
- Changing of the Guard: Effects of Different Self-Administered Survey Modes on Sensitive Questions; 2013; Barlas, F. M., Higgins, W. B., Pflieger, J., Thomas, R. K., Jeffery, D., Mattiko, M.
- Response Format Effects in the Measurement of Employment; 2013; Rodkin, S., Thomas, R. K., Subias, S., Chu, C.
- Impact of Filter Questions on Estimates of Media Consumption; 2013; Cobb, C. L., Godinez, D., Thomas, R. K., Baim, J.
- Effects of Response Format on Measurement of Readership; 2013; Thomas, R. K., Cobb, C. L., Baim, J.
- Ordering Your Attention: Response Order Effects in Parallel Phone and Online Surveys; 2012; Barlas, F. M., Thomas, R. K.
- A Shot in the Dark: Measurement Influence on Likelihood to Vaccination; 2012; Higgins, W. B., Thomas, R. K.
- Response Anchoring and Polarity Effects on Endorsement and Response Patterns; 2012; Higgins, W. B., Thomas, R. K.
- Evaluating the Impact of Emails and Landing Page on Web Survey Access; 2012; Falcone, A. E., Thomas, R. K., Mack, A. R.
- I Got a Feeling: Comparison of Feeling Thermometers with Verbally Labeled Scales in Attitude Measurement...; 2012; Thomas, R. K., Bremer, J.
- The River Flows: Comparison of Experimental Effect Replicability with Different Sample Sources; 2012; Thomas, R. K.
- How Likely?: Comparisons of Behavioral Intention Measurement Validity; 2012; Bremer, J., Thomas, R. K.
- Effects of response format on requalification for recontact studies; 2011; Thomas, R. K.
- Slider Scales Causing Serious Problems With Less Educated Respondents; 2011; Funke, F., Reips, U. -D., Thomas, R. K.
- Cross-country Comparisons: Effects of Scale Type and Response Style Differences; 2011; Thomas, R. K.
- A Comparison of Branching Response Formats with Single Response Formats; 2011; Thomas, R. K.
- Cleaving the Past Behind: A Comparison of Response Formats in the Measurement of Ethnic and Racial Origins...; 2011; Barlas, F. M., Thomas, R. K., Higgins, W. B.
- An Injured Party?: A Comparison of Political Party Response Formats in Party Identification.; 2011; Schwarz, S., Barlas, F. M., Thomas, R. K., Corso, R. A., Szoc, R.
- Sliders for the Smart: Type of Rating Scale on the Web Interacts With Educational Level; 2011; Funke, F., Reips, U. -D., Thomas, R. K.
- Function follows form: Effects of response format on self-reported individuals and household disability...; 2010; Falcone, A. E., Thomas, R. K.
- Response format effects on measurement of employment; 2009; Thomas, R. K., Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D.
- Twisting rating scales in Web surveys: Slider scales versus categorical scales of horizontal versus...; 2009; Funke, F. Reips, U. -D. Thomas, R. K.
- Increasing Confidence in Survey Estimates with Visual Analogue Scales; 2009; Funke, F., Reips, U. -D., Thomas, R. K.
- Response Formats in Cross-cultural Comparisons in Web-based Surveys; 2009; Thomas, R. K.l, Terhanian, G., Funke, F.
- Optimal Design of Branching Questions to Measure Bipolar Constructs; 2009; Malhotra, N., Krosnick, J. A., Thomas, R. K.
- Comparing Adolescent Response Bias Between Internet and Telephone Surveys ; 2009; Klein, J. D., Graff Havens, C., Thomas, R. K.
- Parallel Phone and Web-based Interviews: Effects of Sample and Weighting on Comparability and Validity...; 2008; Thomas, R. K., Krane, D., Taylor, H., Terhanian, G.
- Response Non-Differentiation and Response Styles in Web-Based Studies: Causes and Consequences ; 2008; Frisina, L. T., Thomas, R. K.
- Visual Analogue Scales in Cross Cultural Web Surveys ; 2008; Funke, F., Reips, U. -D., Thomas, R. K.
- Truth in measurement: Comparing Web Based interviewing Techniques; 2007; Couper, M. P., Terhanian, G., Bremer, J., Thomas, R. K.
- A Comparison of Visual Analog and Graphic Rating Scales ; 2007; Thomas, R. K., Couper, M. P.
- The Best of Intentions: Response Format Effects on Measures of Behavioral lntention ; 2007; Thomas, R. K., Klein, J. D., Behnke, C. S., Terhanian, G.
- Scaling Social Desirability: Establishing its Influence Across Modes; 2007; Krane, D., Thomas, R. K., Taylor, H.
- On the Importance of Form: Effects of Response Format on Measures off importance; 2007; Thomas, R. K., Behnke, C. S., Allenza, J., Klein, J. D.
- Improving importance Assessment: Experimental Comparisons between Variations of Ranking and Rating Tasks...; 2007; Thomas, R. K., Allenza, J., Behnke, C. S.
- Behavioral self-report measures. International extensions; 2006; Thomas, R. K., Klein, J. D.
- Merely Incidental?: Effects of Response Format on Self-reported Behavior; 2006; Thomas, R. K., Klein, J. D.
- Response Order Effects in International Online Surveys; 2006; Thomas, R. K., Greenfield, S., Bremer, J.
- Attitude Measurement in Phone and Online Surveys: Can Different Modes and Samples Yield Similar Results...; 2006; Thomas, R. K., Krane, D., Taylor, H., Terhanian, G.
- Response format effects in self-report of political and non-political contributions; 2005; Thomas, R. K. et al.
- Rating versus comparative trade-off measures. Trending changes in political issues across time and predictive...; 2005; Thomas, R. K. et al.
- A Comparison of an Online Card Sorting Task to a Rating Task; 2005; Thomas, R. K., Bayer, L. R., Johnson, A. M., Behnke, C. S.
- A Comparison of Presidential Candidate Vote Intention Measures in U.S. Elections; 2005; Thomas, R. K., Krane, D., Sanders, M. G., Behnke, C. S.
- To Vote or Not to Vote?: A Comparison of Vote Intention Measures; 2005; Thomas, R. K., Sanders, M. G., Smith, R., Behnke, C. S.
- Response Order Effects in Online Surveys; 2005; Thomas, R. K., Behnke, C. S., Johnson, A. M.
- How Does Social Desirability Affect Responses?: Differences in Telephone and Online Surveys; 2005; Taylor, H., Krane, D., Thomas, R. K.
- On the primacy of affect in attitude-behavior research; 2004; Thomas, R. K., Schofield, C. M.
- Measuring television viewership through a multi-method approach; 2004; Terhanian, G., Bremer, J., Delaney, T. F., Thomas, R. K.
- Behavioral Intention Measurement: International Findings; 2004; Thomas, R. K., Terhanian, G., Bayer, L. R.