Web Survey Bibliography
Socio-demographic characteristics of interviewers have a potential biasing effect on data quality. Among others race/ethnicity and gender are the most prominent characteristics analyzed in the literature. Evidence from the literature suggest, that sensitive items – especially questions on gender-related topics – evoke gender-of-interviewer effects. Sometime effects are predominant in opposite gender settings where interviewers of one sex administer a survey to a respondent of the opposite sex, sometime scholars observe reverse interrelations. So far it remains unclear whether these effect occur because respondents are prone to measurement error on the reporting stage (social desirability) or whether the gender or the interviewer modifies the perceived question meaning.
In recent years, Web surveys have become a standard survey mode. So far, online questionnaires resemble their paper counterparts to a great extend: online measurement instruments rely mostly on visually presented written questions with associated response categories. However, compared to paper and pencil questionnaires Web surveys allow for more rich communication with the respondent: graphical elements, pictures, and animated GIFs are used to enhance the appearance of web pages. As a result some Web surveys make use of a humanized interface, e. g. a picture of the investigator, pictures of people performing activities that the respondents are supposed to report on and the like. Earlier studies could demonstrate that those low-intensity humanizing elements have no or only marginal effects on the responses obtained.
However, with the wide spread availability of broadband Internet connections video and/or audio are being used in Web surveys as well. Accordingly, in this study we will assess the impact of pre-recorded video clips of interviewers reading the questions to the respondents. This should enhance the social presence of a human in the survey situation, which in turn should induce more pronounced reactions from the respondents in response to theses humanizing factors.
The paper reports results from a field-experimental study on the impact of video support in Web surveys on data quality. Within a Web survey among university students a standard interactive online questionnaire was used. A random sub-sample answered a version of the questionnaire that consists not only of written questions but also of corresponding video files of interviewers reading the questions to the respondent. 800 respondents were randomly assigned to either of three versions: (1) a traditional text-based version of the questionnaire, (2) a video-enhanced version using a female interviewer and (3) a video-enhanced version using a male interviewer. The survey covered a variety of questions on relationships and sexual behaviors including several highly sensitive items on sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases and the like.
In the presentation we will assess the impact of the gender of the interviewer (in relation to the gender of the respondent) on standard data quality indicators: item non-response, social desirability, over- and underreporting. Preliminary finding suggest, that the video in itself does not affect data quality negatively. However, for highly sensitive questions and topics that relate to the self-presentation of the respondents in front of an opposite-gender interviewer, gender of-interviewer effects are to be observed.
General online research (GOR) 2008 (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Conference proceedings (240)
- Unintentional mobile respondents; 2012; Peterson, G.
- Sensitive topics in PC Web and mobile web surveys: Is there a difference?; 2012; Mavletova, A. M., Couper, M. P.
- Metering mobile usage. Insights from global Arbitron mobile trends panel; 2012; Verkasalo, H.
- Is „chapterisation“ a viable alternative to traditional progress indicators ?; 2012; Spicer, R., Dowling, Z.
- An experimental investigation of the effects of noncontingent and contingent incentives in recruiting...; 2012; Lavrakas, P. J., Dennis, J. M., Peugh, J., Shand-Lubbers, J., Lee, E., Peugh, J., Charlebois, O., Murakami...
- The smart(phone) way to collect survey data; 2011; Stapleton, C.
- The next CAPI evolution - completing web surveys on cell-enabled iPads; 2011; Dayton, J., Driscoll, H.
- Self-administered mobile surveys; 2011; Bosnjak, M.
- Online survey research: Findings, Best practices, and future research; 2011
- Moving forward, building an ethics community (Panel statement); 2011; Kenneally, E. et al.
- In search of a new approach to measure newspaper audiences in Canada: The journey continues; 2011; Crassweller, A., Rogers, J., Graves, F., Gauthier, E., Charlebois, O.
- Effects of response format on requalification for recontact studies; 2011; Thomas, R. K.
- A meta-analysis of experiments manipulating progress indicators in Web surveys; 2011; Callegaro, M., Villar, A., Yang, Y.
- Blend, balance, and stabilize respondent sources; 2011; Eggers, M., Drake, E.
- Mode Effect or Question Wording? Measurement Error in Mixed Mode Surveys; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Using a fillable PDF together with SAS ® for questionnaire data; 2010; Donald, E.
- There is an app for that! A review of smartphone apps for marketing research; 2010; Michelson, M.
- The state of online research in the U.S.; 2010; Miller, J.
- Function follows form: Effects of response format on self-reported individuals and household disability...; 2010; Falcone, A. E., Thomas, R. K.
- Address-based sampling. Merits, design & implementation, and review of field statistics; 2010; Fahimi, M.
- A framework for understanding and applying ethical principles in network and security research; 2010; Kenneally, E., Bailey, M., Maughan, D.
- Restructuring and innovations on the survey “capacity of collective tourist accommodation”...; 2010; Santoro, M. T., Staffieri, S.
- An Analyze of the Zero Price Effect on Online Business Performance - An Research Based on the Mobile...; 2010; Liu, Y., Yuan, P.
- Dealing with Nonresponse in Survey Sampling: an Item Response Modeling Approach; 2010; Matei, A.
- Web survey design and usability; 2010; Karakoyun, F., Kurt, A. A.
- Response format effects on measurement of employment; 2009; Thomas, R. K., Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J. D.
- Getting data for (business) statistics: What's new? What's next?; 2009; Snijkers, G.
- Response Mode and Bias Analysis in the IRS’ Individual Taxpayer Burden Survey; 2009; Brick, J. M., Contos, G.,Masken, K.,Nord, R.
- Survey Mode Effects in Two Military Surveys; 2009; Yang, M., Falcone, A. E., Milan, L. M.
- Web based macroseismic survey: fast information exchange and elaboration of seismic intensity effects...; 2009; De Rubeis, V., Sbarra P., Sorrentino, D., Tosi, P.
- The representativeness of the LISS panel ; 2009; Knoef, M., de Vos, K.
- Sample factors that influence data quality; 2008; Gailey, R., Teal, D., Haechrel, E.
- An online panel as a platform for multi-disciplinary research; 2008; Scherpenzeel, A.
- Visual Design Effects on on Respondents Behaviour in Web-Surveys. A Design Experiment; 2008; Greinöcker, A.
- Effects of Privacy Assurances on the Online Measurement of Psychological Constructs; 2008; Witzki, A., Kramer, J.
- Effects of AJAX Technology in Online Questionnaires; 2008; Lütters, H., Westphal, D., Heublein, F.
- How Web 2.0 Technologies Can Become a Valuable Part of Online Research; 2008; Jaron, R.
- Respondent Authenticity - A biometrical approach to authenticate panelists; 2008; Wachter, B., Bender, C.
- Visual Analogue Scales Versus Categorical Scales: Respondent Burden, Cognitive Depth, and Data Quality...; 2008; Funke, F.,Reips, U. -D.
- Not Mixed-Mode but Switch-Mode; 2008; Höglinger, M., Abraham, M., Arpagaus, J.
- The Impact of Cognitive and Computer Skills on Data Quality in Computer Assisted Self Administered Questionnaires...; 2008; Brecko, B. N., Vehovar, V.
- Optimal Contact Strategy in a Mail-and-Web Mixed Mode Survey; 2008; Holmberg, A., Lorenc, B., Werner, P.
- 10 Years of Meinungsplatz.de: Success in the Collection of Data for Targeted Audiences, Such as the...; 2008; Weyergraf, O.
- Self-selection in Online Access Panels: No “Little Difference” in the Recruiting Process...; 2008; Wirth, T.
- Selectivity or Usefulness of Online-Surveys? A Comparison with Data from a Local Population Survey; 2008; Kroll, S., Hüfken, V., Reuband, K.H.
- Mobile Market Research; 2008; Maxl, E.
- Flexible and High-Speed Market Research through Mobile Data Collection & Online Reporting Tool; 2008; Haag, J., Volkmer, H.P.
- Online vs. Offline in Mobile Surveys; 2008; Neubarth, W., Maier, U.
- Gender-of-Interviewer Effects in Video-Enhanced Web Surveys. Results from a Randomized Field-Experiment...; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- The Online Use of Randomized Response Measurements; 2008; Snijders, C., Weesie, J.