Web Survey Bibliography
Socio-demographic characteristics of interviewers have a potential biasing effect on data quality. Among others race/ethnicity and gender are the most prominent characteristics analyzed in the literature. Evidence from the literature suggest, that sensitive items – especially questions on gender-related topics – evoke gender-of-interviewer effects. Sometime effects are predominant in opposite gender settings where interviewers of one sex administer a survey to a respondent of the opposite sex, sometime scholars observe reverse interrelations. So far it remains unclear whether these effect occur because respondents are prone to measurement error on the reporting stage (social desirability) or whether the gender or the interviewer modifies the perceived question meaning.
In recent years, Web surveys have become a standard survey mode. So far, online questionnaires resemble their paper counterparts to a great extend: online measurement instruments rely mostly on visually presented written questions with associated response categories. However, compared to paper and pencil questionnaires Web surveys allow for more rich communication with the respondent: graphical elements, pictures, and animated GIFs are used to enhance the appearance of web pages. As a result some Web surveys make use of a humanized interface, e. g. a picture of the investigator, pictures of people performing activities that the respondents are supposed to report on and the like. Earlier studies could demonstrate that those low-intensity humanizing elements have no or only marginal effects on the responses obtained.
However, with the wide spread availability of broadband Internet connections video and/or audio are being used in Web surveys as well. Accordingly, in this study we will assess the impact of pre-recorded video clips of interviewers reading the questions to the respondents. This should enhance the social presence of a human in the survey situation, which in turn should induce more pronounced reactions from the respondents in response to theses humanizing factors.
The paper reports results from a field-experimental study on the impact of video support in Web surveys on data quality. Within a Web survey among university students a standard interactive online questionnaire was used. A random sub-sample answered a version of the questionnaire that consists not only of written questions but also of corresponding video files of interviewers reading the questions to the respondent. 800 respondents were randomly assigned to either of three versions: (1) a traditional text-based version of the questionnaire, (2) a video-enhanced version using a female interviewer and (3) a video-enhanced version using a male interviewer. The survey covered a variety of questions on relationships and sexual behaviors including several highly sensitive items on sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases and the like.
In the presentation we will assess the impact of the gender of the interviewer (in relation to the gender of the respondent) on standard data quality indicators: item non-response, social desirability, over- and underreporting. Preliminary finding suggest, that the video in itself does not affect data quality negatively. However, for highly sensitive questions and topics that relate to the self-presentation of the respondents in front of an opposite-gender interviewer, gender of-interviewer effects are to be observed.
General online research (GOR) 2008 (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Other (451)
- Use of FedEx: Early, Late or Never?; 2008; Pope, D.
- E-mail and Postcard Invitation Designs to Maximize Web-Survey Responses Rates; 2008; Kaplowitz, M. D., Lupi, F., Couper, M. P., Thorp, L.
- The Impact of the Spacing of the Scale Options in a Web Survey; 2008; Kennedy, C., Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P., Redline, C. D.
- How Visual Composition of Web Pages Influences Survey Response; 2008; Mahon-Haft, T., Dillman, D. A.
- An Analysis of Mode Effects in Three Mixed-Mode Surveys of Veteran and Military Populations; 2008; Rachev, B., Yang, M., Davis, D., Szoc, R.
- Gender-of-Interviewer Effects in Video-Enhanced Web Surveys. Results from a Randomized Field-Experiment...; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Mail and Internet Surveys ; 2008; Dillman, D. A.
- Online research ethics; 2007; Madge, C.
- An Internet-Based Stated Choices Household Survey for Alternative Fuelled Vehicles ; 2007; Potoglou, D., Kanaroglou, P. S.
- ONLINE DATA COLLECTION – SOLUTION OR BAND-AID?; 2007; Crassweller, A., Williams, D., Thompson, I.
- EMBRACING TECHNOLOGY IN READERSHIP SURVEYS; 2007; Impedovo, D., Greene, D.
- MAGAZINE EFFECTIVENESS NOW DIRECTLY OBSERVABLE; 2007; Green, M.
- Applications of the Document Object Model (DOM) in Web-Surveys; 2007; Neubarth, W., Kaczmirek, L.
- Improving Data Quality in Web Surveys with Visual Analogue Scales; 2007; Funke, F., Reips, U. -D.
- Calibration and propensity score weighting in web surveys; 2007; Fabrizi, E., Biffignandi, S.
- THE READERSHIP CURRENCY: DUTCH DESIGN How a new methodology for AIR measurement opens up new perspectives...; 2007; Petric, I., Appel, M.
- Using Audio and Video Clips in Web Surveys — Feasibility and Impact on Data Quality; 2007; Fuchs, M., Funke, F.
- Using user feedback: Redesigning the "Survey of Industrial production"; 2007; Conrad, A.
- Making Sense of Data via the Web; 2007; Anolik, I.
- Design Details in Web Surveys; 2007; Couper, M. P.
- Employee Surveys Administered Online: Attitudes Toward the Medium, Nonresponse, and Data Representativeness...; 2007; Thompson, L. F., Surface, E. A.
- Testing for the survey mode effect on contingent valuation data quality: A case study of web based versus...; 2007; Marta-Pedroso, C., Freitas, H., Domingos, T.
- A comparison of reliability between telephone and web-based surveys; 2007; Braunsberger, K., Wybenga, H., Gates, R.
- Media usage in the age of Web 2.0 ; 2007; Trump, T., Spahlinger, M. P.
- The impact of the duration of affiliation and the intensity of questioning on the willingness of participation...; 2007; Wachenfeld, A.
- Quality of Online Research: Does it Improve Results? ; 2007; Lindemann, M.
- New Access to Information laws in Germany - a big bang for Computer-Assisted Reporting (CAR)? ; 2007; Redelfs, M.
- Subjective Anonymity in Online-Surveys ; 2007; Strassnig, B.
- A closer look at the effect of recruitment methods on data quality for online panel surveys ; 2007; Irmer, C., Wenzel, O., Peichl, M.
- Disclosure and Deception in Tomorrow's Survey lnterview; 2007; Hancock, J.
- Scaling Social Desirability: Establishing its Influence Across Modes; 2007; Krane, D., Thomas, R. K., Taylor, H.
- Web and Paper Surveys: Validity, Reliability, and Practically; 2007; Miller, L.
- To Branch or Not to Branch: Item Construction in Web Surveys; 2007; Grosse, A., Luks, S., Rivers, D.
- What's Missing from National RDD Surveys? The Impact of Growing Cell-Only Population.; 2007; Keeter, S., Kennedy, C., Tompson, T., Mokrzycki, M., Clark, A.
- Assessment of Variations in Response Rate of Web-Based Student Surveys; 2007; Mitra, A., McCoy, T., Champion, H., O'Brian, M., Gupta, M., Wolfson, M.
- Social Aspects of Mobile Phone Usage and Their Impact on Survey Cooperation; 2007; Vehovar, V., Callegaro, M.
- Compensating for low topic interest and long surveys: A field experiment on nonresponse in Web surveys...; 2007; Marcus, B., Bosnjak, M., Lindner, S., Pilischenko, S., Schuetz, A.
- Lotteries as Incentives in Longitudinal Web Studies; 2007; Goeritz, A., Wolff, H.-G.
- Design of Web Questionnaires: The Effect of Layout in Rating Scales ; 2006; Toepoel, V., Das, M., van Soest, A.
- Web-based Surveys in Logistics Research: An Empirical Application; 2006; Grant, D. B., Teller, C., Teller, W.
- Privacy laws, internet scams and other challenges affecting panel research Strategies to mitigate risk...; 2006; Stark, D.
- Perceptions of News Credibility about the War in Iraq: Why War Opponents Perceived the Internet as the...; 2006; Choi, J.H., Watt, J.H., Lynch, M.
- Weighting an Internet Panel Survey on Drug Use and Abuse; 2006; Gordek, H., Williams, R. L., Dai, L.
- Results from the International Survey of ASA Members; 2006; Luo, A., Sangster, R.
- Web-based data collection in China; 2006; Davison, R. M., Li, Y., Kam, C. S. P.
- Merely Incidental?: Effects of Response Format on Self-reported Behavior; 2006; Thomas, R. K., Klein, J. D.
- Can Web and Mail Survey Modes Improve Participation in an RDD-based National Health Surveillance?; 2006; Link, M. W., Mokdad, A.
- Encuestas a empleados a través de Internet: Conceptos y descubrimientos; 2006; Reips, U. -D.
- Collecting data on alcohol use and alcohol-related victimization: a comparison of telephone and Web-...; 2006; Parks, K. A., Pardi, A. M., Bradizza, C. M.
- Feasibility of Using Web-based Questionnaires in Large Population-based Epidemiological Studies; 2006; Ekman, A., Dickman, P. W., Klint, A., Weiderpass, E., Litton, J.-E.