Web Survey Bibliography
This paper explores how the visual design of scalar questions influences responses in web surveys. We present the results of five experiments embedded in two web surveys of university students. We find that consistently presenting the positive end of the scale first did not impact responses but increases response times. Displaying the categories in multiple columns influence how respondents process the scale and increase response times. Separating the midpoint, ``don't know'' option, or endpoints spatially does not impact responses when the visual and conceptual midpoint align. Removing the graphical layout of the scale influences responses when lower numbers indicate more positive categories and increases response time. Finally, response times are longer for polar point scales with numeric labels, but there are no differences in responses. Overall, our results suggest that the visual design of response scales impacts measurement, but that some manipulations produce larger and more significant differences than others.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Sociological Methods & Research (16)
- Not by the Book: Facebook as a Sampling Frame; 2012; Brickman Bhutta, C.
- Nonparametric Tests of Panel Conditioning and Attrition Bias in Panel Surveys; 2011; Das, M., Toepoel, V., van Soest, A.
- Evaluating Relative Mode Effects in Mixed-Mode Surveys: Three methods to disentangle selection and measurement...; 2011; Vannieuwenhuyze, J., Loosveldt, G.
- Estimating Propensity Adjustments for Volunteer Web Surveys; 2011; Valliant, R. L., Dever, J. A.
- Sensitive Questions in Online Surveys: Experimental Results for the Randomized Response Technique (RRT...; 2011; Coutts, E., Jann, B.
- Introduction to the Special Issue on Web Surveys ; 2009; Witte, J. C.
- Smartphones: An Emerging Tool for Social Scientists; 2009; Raento, M., Oulasvirta, A., Eagle, N.
- Designing Scalar Questions for Web Surveys; 2009; Christian, L. M., Parsons, N. L., Dillman, D. A.
- Design of Web Questionnaires: An Information-Processing Perspective for the Effect of Response Categories...; 2009; Toepoel, V., Vis, C., Das, M., van Soest, A.
- Web Survey Design: Balancing Measurement, Response, and Topical Interest ; 2009; Shropshire, K. O., Hawdon, J. E., Witte, J. C.
- Estimation for Volunteer Panel Web Surveys Using Propensity Score Adjustment and Calibration Adjustment...; 2009; Lee, S., Valliant, R. L.
- Selection Bias in Web Surveys and the Use of Propensity Scores; 2009; Schonlau, M., van Soest, A., Kapteyn, A., Couper, M. P.
- Web-based network sampling - Efficiency and efficacy of respondent-driven sampling for online research...; 2008; Wejnert, C., Heckathorn, D. D.
- Feeling thermometers versus 7-point scales. Which are better?; 1997; Alwin, D. F.
- Implications of CATI: Costs, Errors, and Organization of Telephone Survey Research; 1983; Groves, R. M.
- Research Opportunities Related to CATI; 1983; Freeman, H.E.