Web Survey Bibliography
An important objective in survey question design is to write clear questions that respondents find easy to understand and to answer. This contribution identifies the factors that influence question clarity. Theoretical and empirical evidence from psycholinguistics suggests that specific text features (e.g., low-frequency words (LFRWs), left-embedded syntax) cause comprehension difficulties and impose a high cognitive burden on respondents. To examine the effect of seven different text features on question clarity, an online experiment was conducted in which well-formulated questions were compared to suboptimal counterparts. The cognitive burden of the questions was assessed with response times. Data quality was compared in terms of drop-out rates and survey satisficing behaviour. The results show that at least six of the text features are relevant for the clarity of a question. We provide a detailed explanation of these text features and advise survey designers to avoid them when crafting questions.
Journal homepage (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Lenzner, T. (8)
- An Evaluation of Two Non-Reactive Web Questionnaire Pretesting Methods; 2012; Lenzner, T.
- Online Research @ GESIS; 2011; Kaczmirek, L., Lenzner, T.
- A Psycholinguistic Look at Survey Question Design and Response Quality; 2011; Lenzner, T.
- Effects of survey question clarity on data quality; 2011; Lenzner, T.
- Question Comprehensibility and Satisficing Behavior in Web Surveys; 2011; Lenzner, T.
- Cognitive process in answering questions: Are verbal labels in rating scales attended to?; 2011; Menold, N., Kaczmirek, L., Lenzner, T.
- Left feels right! The optimal position of answer boxes in Web surveys; 2011; Galesic, M., Kaczmirek, L., Lenzner, T., Merkert, M.
- Cognitive burden of survey questions and response times: A psycholinguistic experiment; 2010; Lenzner, T., Kaczmirek, L., Lenzner, A.