Web Survey Bibliography
Declining response rates force survey researchers to implement surveying strategies that would motivate target persons to cooperate. Incentives have often proved to be a viable approach to address this issue. They have been increasingly used also in web surveys, which are relatively cheaper, compared to other modes but at the same time suer from generally lower response rates. Since the problems like noncoverage and lack of sampling frames still make web surveys largely inappropriate for surveying general populations, the possibility of their integration into mixed-mode designs has become one of the central questions of survey methodology. This introduced a new area also for methodological research on incentives.
While incentives can substantially increase response rates, they can also signi cantly heighten the research costs. Furthermore, the impact on survey responses often remains uncontrolled and is largely unclear in mixed-mode designs. In this paper, we study the problem of using incentives in mixed-mode surveys of the general population by comparing response rates, errors and costs among dierent experimental mixed-mode designs.
The experiment was conducted on a sample of the general Slovene population. Participants were randomly assigned into one of experimental groups, manipulating two dierent combinations of modes (web/mail and web/telephone) and three dierent types of incentives (no incentive, wallet as a gift and 5 Euros in cash). We first present the impact of incentives on response rates in each of the groups and compare errors using the Mean Square Error approach. The results show that the response rates are not a good predictor of the data quality, since the monetary incentives signi cantly boosted cooperation but at the same time produced a high bias. This finding is then elaborated by a detailed analysis of the response patterns that might have contributed to the bias. Possible adjustments of survey design, that may provide a higher data quality, are discussed as well. Finally, the cost aspects are taken into account and evaluated by a simulation of dierent initial sample sizes and their effect on the costs-errors optimization. The ndings of the study suggest that the use of incentives in mixed-mode surveys should be methodologically well elaborated, not only from the aspect of response rates, but also with a careful consideration of survey errors and costs.
Conference homepage (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Other (451)
- Do we hear different voices?: Investigating the differences between internet and non-internet users...; 2009; Zhang, C., Callegaro, M., Thomas, M., DiSogra, C.
- The Effect of Email Invitation Customization on Survey Completion Rates in an Internet Panel: A Meta...; 2009; Callegaro, M., Kruse, Y., Thomas, M., Nukulkij, P.
- Panel Conditioning and Attrition in the AP-Yahoo! News Election Panel Study; 2009; Kruse, Y., Callegaro, M., Dennis, J. M., DiSogra, C., Subias, S., Lawrence, M., Tompson, T.
- Recruiting Probability-Based Web Panel Members Using an Address-Based Sample Frame: Results from a Pilot...; 2009; DiSogra, C., Callegaro, M., Hendarwan, E.
- Web Panel Studies of the 2008 Election; 2009; Dennis, J. M., Tompson, T.
- Comparison Study of Early Adopter Attitudes and Online Behavior in Probability and Non-Probability Web...; 2009; Dennis, J. M., Osborn, L., Semans, K.
- Summary of KnowledgePanel® Design; 2009; Dennis, J. M.
- Presentation of a Single Item versus a Grid: Effects on the Vitality and Mental Health Scales of the...; 2009; Callegaro, M., Shand-Lubbers, J., Dennis, J. M.
- Survey Research in Virtual Worlds: Second Life R as a Research Platform; 2009; Hill, C., Dean, E.
- Elderly in an Internet panel, the quality of the data; 2009; Vis, C.
- Computer-Assisted Audio Recording (CARI): Repurposing a Tool for Evaluating Comparative Instrument Design...; 2009; Edwards, B., Hicks, W., Tourangeau, K., Harris-Kojetin, L., Moss, A.
- Do online translated questionnaires result in higher response rates for patient surveys?; 2009; Boyd, J., Davis, A.
- A comparison of two mixed mode designs: cati-capi and web-cati-capi; 2009; Beukenhorst, D., Wetzels, W.
- Comparison between Liss panel (web) and ESS data (face to face); 2009; Revilla, M., Saris, W. E.
- Mobile Phone Surveys in Germany – Response rates and response behaviour; 2009; Hader, S., Schneiderat, G.
- Interviewer voice characteristics and productivity in telephone surveys; 2009; Best, H., Bauer, G., Steinkopf, L.
- Standardized recall aids for online life course surveys; 2009; Glasner, T.
- The impact of forgiving wording and question context on social desirability bias in sensitive surveys...; 2009; Naher, A.- F., Krumpal, I.
- Interactive feedback can improve accuracy of responses in web surveys; 2009; Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P., Tourangeau, R., Galesic, M.
- Effectiveness of incentives in mixed-mode systems: An evaluation of errors & costs; 2009; Lozar Manfreda, K., Berzelak, N., Vehovar, V.
- The influence of the field time on data quality in list-based Web surveys; 2009; Goeritz, A., Stieger, S.
- Twisting Rating Scales: Horizontal versus Vertical Visual Analogue Scales versus Categorical Scales...; 2009; Funke, F., Reips, U. -D.
- Individual Follow-up of the Target Population: the Plural Strategies of a Web Survey; 2009; Markou, E., de Cledat, B., Razafindratsima, N., Laurent, R., Issenhuth, P.
- How to cover the general public by Internet interviewing; 2009; Das, M.
- Telephone Survey and political behaviour estimates in 22 European countries: Evaluating the need for...; 2009; Hufken, V.
- What to do if Probability Sampling is Impossible in a Web Survey?; 2009; Markou, E., Razafindratsima, N., de Cledat, B., Issenhuth, P., Laurent, R.
- Paradata and Blaise: A Review of Recent Applications and Research; 2009; O’Reilly, J.
- If You Provide It, Will They Read It? Response Time Effects in a Choice Experiment; 2009; Vista, A. B., Rosenberger, R. S., Collins, A. R.
- Pictures in Web Surveys; 2009; Toepoel, V., Couper, M. P.
- National readership surveys: Moving from probability face-to-face surveys to Internet panels; 2009; Vehovar, V., Slavec, A., Petric, I., Sargac, M.
- An experiment on the effects of non-response reweighting on estimators' precision in a web survey; 2009; Fabrizi, E., Biffignandi, S., Toninelli, D.
- Dynamic feedback in open-ended questions: Experiments on the visual design language of Web surveys; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- Effects of monetary incentives on participation in a two-wave online survey; 2009; Bandilla, W., Haas, I.
- Response Order and Response Distributions: The Format of the Response Options in a Web Survey; 2009; Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P., Balter, O.
- Anticipated estimation from a panel Web survey: the case of the presence of tourists in the Province...; 2009; Scaffai, G., Pratesi, M.
- Is this e-mail relevant? An eyetracking experiment on how potential respondents read e-mail invitations...; 2009; Kaczmirek, L., Faa▀, T., Galesic, M.
- Comparing the results of Web surveys on volunteer versus probabilistically selected panels of participants...; 2009; Galesic, M.
- Yes, VASs can! Increasing the accuracy of survey measurements with computerized visual analogue scales...; 2009; Funke, F., Reips, U. -D.
- Using Mail Contact to Sample and Encourage Submission of Questionnaire Answers Over the Internet; 2009; Dillman, D. A., Messer, B. L., Millar, M. M.
- Improving the Design of Complex Matrix Questions; 2009; Couper, M. P., Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G.
- Interactive aspects of web surveys; 2009; Conrad, F. G.
- Donations to charity as incentives in online panels; 2009; Goeritz, A.; Hox, J.
- Pros and Cons of Internet Surveys Compared to Traditional Survey Methods; 2009; Benjamin, G. D.
- Visual Design Effects on Respondents’ Behavior in Web-Surveys; 2009; Grein÷cker, A.
- Separating Selection Bias and Non-coverage in Internet Panels using Propensity Matching; 2009; Lensvelt-Mulders, G. J., Lugtig, P. J., Hubregtse, M.
- Applying theory to structure respondents' stated motivations for participating in web surveys; 2009; Han, V., Albaum, G., Wiley, J. B., Thirkell, P.
- Choosing Between Internet and Mail Survey Modes for Choice Experiment Surveys Considering Non-Market...; 2009; Bøye Olsen, S.
- Social Attitude Differences between Internet Users and Non-users; 2009; Robinson, J. P., Martin, S. P.
- Online Election Surveys: Keeping the Voters Honest? ; 2009; Gibson, R., McAllister, I.
- Qualitative Research via Internet: Asynchronous Online Discussions and the Use of WebCT; 2009; Giatsi Clausen, M., Nicol, M., Gill, J.