Web Survey Bibliography
Declining response rates force survey researchers to implement surveying strategies that would motivate target persons to cooperate. Incentives have often proved to be a viable approach to address this issue. They have been increasingly used also in web surveys, which are relatively cheaper, compared to other modes but at the same time suer from generally lower response rates. Since the problems like noncoverage and lack of sampling frames still make web surveys largely inappropriate for surveying general populations, the possibility of their integration into mixed-mode designs has become one of the central questions of survey methodology. This introduced a new area also for methodological research on incentives.
While incentives can substantially increase response rates, they can also signi cantly heighten the research costs. Furthermore, the impact on survey responses often remains uncontrolled and is largely unclear in mixed-mode designs. In this paper, we study the problem of using incentives in mixed-mode surveys of the general population by comparing response rates, errors and costs among dierent experimental mixed-mode designs.
The experiment was conducted on a sample of the general Slovene population. Participants were randomly assigned into one of experimental groups, manipulating two dierent combinations of modes (web/mail and web/telephone) and three dierent types of incentives (no incentive, wallet as a gift and 5 Euros in cash). We first present the impact of incentives on response rates in each of the groups and compare errors using the Mean Square Error approach. The results show that the response rates are not a good predictor of the data quality, since the monetary incentives signi cantly boosted cooperation but at the same time produced a high bias. This finding is then elaborated by a detailed analysis of the response patterns that might have contributed to the bias. Possible adjustments of survey design, that may provide a higher data quality, are discussed as well. Finally, the cost aspects are taken into account and evaluated by a simulation of dierent initial sample sizes and their effect on the costs-errors optimization. The ndings of the study suggest that the use of incentives in mixed-mode surveys should be methodologically well elaborated, not only from the aspect of response rates, but also with a careful consideration of survey errors and costs.
Conference homepage (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Other CASIC (529)
- Zero Banks: Coverage Error and Bias in Rdd Samples Based on Hundred Banks with Listed Numbers ; 2009; Boyle, J., Bucuvalas, M., Piekarski, L., Weiss, A.
- National Surveys Via RDD Telephone Interviewing vs. the Internet: Comparing Sample Representativeness...; 2009; Chang, L. C., Krosnick, J. A.
- Best practices in mobile research; 2009; Zahariev, M., Ferneyhough, C., Ryan, C.
- Mobile interviewing; 2009; Lavine, S.
- A comparison of web-based and telephone surveys for assessing traffic safety concerns, beliefs, and...; 2009; Beck, K. H., Yan, A. F., Qi Wang, M.
- The Coverage Bias of Mobile Web Surveys Across European Countries ; 2009; Fuchs, M., Busse, B.
- Item non-response rates: a comparison of online and paper questionnaires ; 2009; Denscombe, M.
- Using mobile phones for survey research A comparison with fixed phones ; 2009; Vicente, P., Reis, E., Santos, R.
- A Comparison of Different Survey Periods in Online Surveys of Persons with Eating Disorders and Their...; 2009; Wesemann, D., Grunwald, A., Grunwald, M.
- A Comparison of Web-Based and Paper-Based Survey Methods Testing Assumptions of Survey Mode and Response...; 2009; Greenlaw, C., Brown-Welty, S.
- Doing Research in the Real World; 2009; Gray, D. E.
- Conducting Mobile Surveys: A Hands-on Introduction to an Innovative Research Mode; 2009; Pferdekämper, T., Melcher, T.
- An experimental mixed mode design on a general population survey ; 2009; Eva, G.
- Does Response Rate Matter? Journal Editors Use of Survey Quality Measures in Manuscript Publication...; 2009; Carley-Baxter, L. R., Hill, C., Roe, D. J., Twiddy, S. E., Baxter, R. K., Ruppenkamp, J.
- Declining Working Phone Rates Impact Sample Efficiency; 2009; Piekarski, L.
- Using Non-Probability Samples for Confusion Surveys - Mall Intercepts and the Internet; 2009; Ericksen, E. P.
- Using Debit Cards for Incentive Payments: Experiences of a Weekly Survey Study; 2009; Gatny, H. H., Couper, M. P., Axinn, W., Barber, J. S.
- Characteristics of Cell Phone Only, Listed, and Unlisted Telephone Households; 2009; Tarnai, J., , Schultz, R.Moore, D.
- Cell Phone-Only Households: A Good Target for Internet Surveys?; 2009; Bates, N.
- Nonsampling Error Research in Practice; 2009; Brick, J. M., Kalton, G.
- Envisioning the Survey Interview of the Future ; 2009; Conrad, F. G., Schober, M. F.
- Are telephone Surveys a dying bread. How declining response rates can be explained and resolved; 2009; Degen, M., Obermüller, A., Schielicke, A.-M.
- Factors Contributing to Participation in Web‐based Surveys among Italian University Graduates; 2009; Cimini, C., Girottu, C., Gasperoni, G.
- Integration of different data collection techniques using the propensity score; 2009; Camillo, F., Conti, V., Ghiselli, S.
- Mode effects in Switzerland: non‐response and measurement error on the European Social Survey; 2009; Roberts, C.
- The mixing of survey modes: application to Laon web and face‐to‐face household travel survey...; 2009; Bayart, C., Bonnel, P.
- An innovative open source strategy for the development of electronic questionnaires for statistical...; 2009; Degortes, M., Landriscina, M., Murgia, M.
- Response rates in multi actor surveys; 2009; Pasteels, I., Ponnet, K., Mortelmans, D.
- Unit non‐response in panel surveys: empirical finding from an experiment; 2009; Haunberger, S.
- Do cash incentives helps with RDD studies? Examination of results from a national and a statewide survey...; 2009; Miller, Y., Barger, K., Hearn, D.
- The Potential of a Multi-mode Data Collection Design to Reduce non-response bias. The Case of a Survey...; 2009; Sala, E., Lynn, P.
- Are people sharing their mobile phones? Selection probabilities in cellular telephone surveys; 2009; Fuchs, M., Busse, B.
- New developments in survey methodology for official statistics; 2009; Bethlehem, J.
- Survey cooperation: response to initial and follow-up requests - Recent experiences from the recruitment...; 2009; Bartsch, S., Engel, U., Schnabel, C., Vehre, H.
- Using Mobile Phones to Administer a Working Memory Updating Task in a Survey - Cognitive Performance...; 2009; Schmiedek, F., Riediger, M., Lindenberger, U., Wagner, G. G.
- Accessibility of individuals for mobile phone surveys; 2009; Gabler, S., Häder, S.
- Mixed Modes and Measurement Error: Comparing face-to-face, telephone and web modes ; 2009; Hope, S., Nicolaas, G., Jäckle, A., Lynn, P., Nandi, A., Campanelli, P.
- The Difficult but Essential Challenge of Designing Mixed-Mode Surveys; 2009; Dillman, D. A.
- Assesssment of Potential Bias in Telephone Survey Estimates Due to Noncontact and Noncoverage When Household...; 2009; Khare, M., Wouhib, A.
- Experimenting With Speech Interactive Voice Response, Touchtone Data Entry and the Web for the National...; 2009; Cantor, D., Brick, P. D., Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G.
- Indicators for the representativeness of survey response; 2009; Schouten, B., Cobben, F., Bethlehem, J.
- Recruiting Probability-Based Web Panel Members Using an Address-Based Sample Frame: Results from a Pilot...; 2009; DiSogra, C., Callegaro, M., Hendarwan, E.
- The Challenge and Importance of Including Spanish-Dominant Latinos in an Online Panel; 2009; Dennis, J. M., Wells, T., Torres, J.
- Computer-Assisted Audio Recording (CARI): Repurposing a Tool for Evaluating Comparative Instrument Design...; 2009; Edwards, B., Hicks, W., Tourangeau, K., Harris-Kojetin, L., Moss, A.
- A comparison of two mixed mode designs: cati-capi and web-cati-capi; 2009; Beukenhorst, D., Wetzels, W.
- Comparison between Liss panel (web) and ESS data (face to face); 2009; Revilla, M., Saris, W. E.
- Is a cell phone really a personal device? Results from the first wave of a mobile phone panel on sharing...; 2009; Fuchs, M., Busse, B.
- Mobile Phone Surveys in Germany – Response rates and response behaviour; 2009; Hader, S., Schneiderat, G.
- Interviewer voice characteristics and productivity in telephone surveys; 2009; Best, H., Bauer, G., Steinkopf, L.
- Effectiveness of incentives in mixed-mode systems: An evaluation of errors & costs; 2009; Lozar Manfreda, K., Berzelak, N., Vehovar, V.