Web Survey Bibliography
Previous research shows that changes in number-label association can affect respondents’ answers. In our first study, conducted with members of KnowledgePanel®, we manipulated the order of presentation of a fully labeled five point satisfaction scale (very satisfied to very unsatisfied); the association of numbers from 1 to 5 to each scale point; and we also reversed the number order (from 5 to 1). This manipulation created six experimental conditions. For each condition, we presented seven different items on separate screens. The completion rate for this study, done in April 2008, was 71%.
In the second study we used only a polar point satisfaction scale and manipulated the order of the scale as well the number-label associations (1 to 5 or 5 to 1). This created 4 experimental conditions to which KnowledgePanel members were randomly assigned during a survey conducted in August of 2008 with a completion rate of 72%. For each condition, we presented seven different items on separate screens.
In the first study we investigated the differences between each version, focusing specifically on the following comparisons: response options with numbers associated vs. options without numbers; order of the response option presentation; and order of the number association. Results from experiment 1 suggest that (1) reversing the order of presentation makes a significant difference resulting in primacy effects and in an increase of time latency when the scale is shown starting from “Very unsatisfied”. (2) Changing the number-label association does not make much of a difference; it appears that for a fully labeled scale the label is almost overriding the number. (3) Respondents are, however, slightly confused when the number-label association does not go in the expected direction.
In the second study we compared the 4 experimental groups, first between (same order of presentation but reversing the number-label association), and then within (same number-label association but reversing the order of presentation of the scale). We did not find many significant differences among groups, thus leading us to conclude that for a polar point scale the number-label association has less of an impact than for a fully labeled scale.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Other (450)
- Taking the Audio Out of Audio-CASI; 2009; Tourangeau, R., Couper, M. P., Marvin, T.
- Questionnaire Survey Nonresponse: A Comparison of Postal Mail and Internet Surveys ; 2009; Hoonakker, P., Carayon, P.
- Open-Ended Questions in Web Surveys: Can Increasing the Size of Answer Boxes and Providing Extra Verbal...; 2009; Smyth, J. D., Dillman, D. A., Christian, L. M., McBride, M.
- Effectiveness of incentives in web surveys within mixed-mode systems: An evaluation of errors & costs...; 2009; Lozar Manfreda, K.
- Representativeness of web surveys to the general public ; 2009; Sonck, N.
- Effects of data collection technique on the quality of data: A MTMM study of CATI, CAPI and Online interviews...; 2009; Scherpenzeel, A.
- The Mobile-only Population in Portugal and Its Impact in a Dual Frame Telephone Survey; 2009; Vicente, P., Reis, E.
- Impact of mixed survey modes on physical activity and fruit/vegetable consumption: A longitudinal study...; 2009; Nigg, C. R., Motl, R. W., Wong, K. T., Yoda L. U., McCurdy, D. K., Paxton, R., Horwath, C. C., Dishman...
- Internet research differs from research on internet users: some methodological insights into online...; 2009; Lohmann, M., Schmucker, D. J.
- Behaviour analysis of internet survey completion using decision trees: An exploratory study; 2009; Lin, C. C., Yang, H. J., Kuo, L. H.
- Find out what your people really think: How to maximize response rates to employee satisfaction surveys...; 2009; Lusty, D.
- Anytime, Anywhere Mobile Interviewing: Comparing Mobile Voice and Web Response Patterns; 2009; Petit, F. C.
- Using mobile phones to measure TV-broadcast quality; 2009; Wieland, J. L., Puggaard, B.
- The representativeness of the LISS panel ; 2009; Knoef, M., de Vos, K.
- Optimum survey methods when interviewing employed women; 2009; Dunning, K., LeMasters, G. K.
- Online Versus Paper: Format Effects in Tourism Surveys; 2009; Dolnicar, S., Laesser, C., Matus, K.
- Towards a flexible online mixed method design with a feedback loop; 2009; Lobe, B., Vehovar, V.
- Providing Real-Time Incentives for Anonymous Web Surveys; 2008; Heinrich, T.
- Blast from the Past: The Challenges of Gaining Cooperation for a Follow-up Survey Several Years Later...; 2008; Costanzo, D., Sipulski, E., Carris, K., O'Connor, K.
- Data Collection on Handheld Computers with Voice Recognition Technology; 2008; Malakhoff, L.
- How To Write Better Survey Questionnaires; 2008; Triplett, T. A.
- Response Effects in Video-enhanced Web Surveys; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Evaluation of Sample Designs for Telephone Surveys That Include Cell Phones; 2008; Steeh, C. G.
- Costs and Benefits from Conducting a Supplemental Sample of Cell Phone Numbers in National RDD Surveys...; 2008; Kennedy, C.
- Cell Phone Interviewing; 2008; Lee, R. H.
- Swedish National Data Service's Strategy for Sharing and Mediating Data; 2008; Carlhed, C., Alfredsson, I.
- A Web-Based Survey of the Relationship Between Buddhist Religious Practices, Health, and Psychological...; 2008; Wiist, W. H., Sullivan, B. M., Wayment, H. A., Warren, M.
- Social Research Methods; 2008; Bryman, A.
- The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly of Cell Phone Surveying; 2008; Barron, M.
- Experiments Exploring the Relationship (or Lack Thereof) Between Nonresponse Error and Measurement Error...; 2008; Tourangeau, R., Groves, R. M., Presser, S., Toppe, C., Kennedy, K., Yan, T.,
- Respondent Incentives in a Multi-Mode Panel Survey: Cumulative Effects on Non-Response and Bias; 2008; Jäckle, A., Lynn, P.
- Effects of Pre-coding Response Options for Five Point Satisfaction Scale in Web Surveys; 2008; Callegaro, M., Wells, T., Kruse, Y.
- National Surveys Via RDD Telephone Interviewing vs. the Internet: Comparing Sample Representativeness...; 2008; Chang, L. C., Krosnick, J. A.
- More than the digital divide?: Investigating the differences between Internet and non-Internet users; 2008; Zhang, C., Callegaro, M., Thomas, M.
- Enhancing the Travel Survey Process and Data Using the CATI System ; 2008; Morency, C.
- The Methodological Issues Associated With Internet-Based Research; 2008; Beddows, E.
- The Effectiveness of CATI Method in the Survey “Structure of Agricultural Holdings”; 2008; Jakóbik, K., Ruta, G.
- Sensitive Questions in Online Surveys: Experimental Results for the Randomized Response Technique (RRT...; 2008; Coutts, E., Jann, B.
- An evaluation of the weighting procedures for an online access panel survey; 2008; Loosveldt, G., Sonck, N.
- Mobile Research: Five Ways To Collect Data Using Mobile Devices; 2008; Conry, S.
- Fraudsters: Teach Them Well; 2008; Pettit, F. A.
- Transitioning from Self-Reports to Self-Installed Electronic Audience Measurement; 2008; Trussell, N., Vanno, L., Matthess, E., Bailey, J., Link, M. W.
- The Role of New Technology and its’ Effect on Best Practices Methodology; 2008; Kendall, E.
- Representativeness in Online-Surveys Through Stratified Sample; 2008; Blasius, J.
- Comparing the Results of Probability and Non-probability Telephone and Internet Survey Data; 2008; Wang, R., Krosnick, J. A.
- Evaluating the Potential Contributions of a Web-based Convenience Sample to the Accuracy of a Probability...; 2008; Elliott, M. N., Haviland, A.
- Evaluating Efficiency and Effectiveness of Cell Phone Samples; 2008; Sen, S., Zmud, J., Arce, C.
- The MacroPoll Wireless Experience: Development and Lessons Learned.; 2008; Austin, J. D., Zullwack, R., Dyer, A., Dayton, J. J.
- Pilot Development of a Smartphone-Enabled Full-Probability Panel; 2008; Hill, C., Biemer, P. P., Coombs, D., Eyerman, J.
- Use of FedEx: Early, Late or Never?; 2008; Pope, D.