Web Survey Bibliography
Background: Nonresponse to questionnaires can affect the validity of surveys and introduce bias. Offering financial incentives can increase response rates to postal questionnaires, but the effect of financial incentives on response rates to online surveys is less clear.
Objective: As part of a survey, we aimed to test whether knowledge of a financial incentive would increase the response rate to an online questionnaire.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial of 485 UK-based principal investigators of publicly funded health services and population health research. Participants were contacted by email and invited to complete an online questionnaire via an embedded URL. Participants were randomly allocated to groups with either “knowledge of” or “no knowledge of” a financial incentive (£10 Amazon gift voucher) to be provided on completion of the survey. At the end of the study, gift vouchers were given to all participants who completed the questionnaire regardless of initial randomization status. Four reminder emails (sent from the same email address as the initial invitation) were sent out to nonrespondents at one, two, three, and four weeks; a fifth postal reminder was also undertaken. The primary outcome measure for the trial was the response rate one week after the second reminder. Response rate was also measured at the end of weeks one, two, three, four, and five, and after a postal reminder was sent.
Results: In total, 243 (50%) questionnaires were returned (232 completed, 11 in which participation was declined). One week after the second reminder, the response rate in the “knowledge” group was 27% (66/244) versus 20% (49/241) in the “no knowledge” group (χ21 = 3.0, P = .08). The odds ratio for responding among those with knowledge of an incentive was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95 - 2.21). At the third reminder, participants in the “no knowledge” group were informed about the incentive, ending the randomized element of the study. However we continued to follow up all participants, and from reminder three onwards, no significant differences were observed in the response rates of the two groups.
Conclusions: Knowledge of a financial incentive did not significantly increase the response rate to an online questionnaire. Future surveys should consider including a randomized element to further test the utility of offering incentives of other types and amounts to participate in online questionnaires.
Journal of Medical Internet Research - Homepage (abstract) / (full text)
Web Survey Bibliography - 2010 (406)
- A validation of well-being and happiness surveys for administration via the Internet ; 2010; Howell, R. T., Rodzon, K. S., Kurai, M., Sanchez, A. H.
- A short self-report measure of problems with executive function suitable for administration via the...; 2010; Buchanan, T., Heffernan, T. M., Parrott, A. C., Ling, J., Rodgers, J., Scholey, A. B.
- A Comparison of Psychometric Properties Between Internet and Paper Versions of Two Depression Instruments...; 2010; Andersson, G., Engstroem, I., Hollaendare, F.
- The Influence of Response Mode on Study Results: Offering Cigarette Smokers a Choice of Postal or Online...; 2010; Callas, P. W., Solomon, L. J., Hughes, J. R., Livingston, A. E.
- Reading the Public Mind; 2010; O'Connell, A.
- Combining Link-Tracing Sampling and Cluster Sampling to Estimate Totals and Means of Hidden Human Populations...; 2010; Félix-Medina, M. H., Monjardin, P. E.
- Increasing Respondents' Use of Definitions in Web Surveys; 2010; Peytchev, A., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P., Tourangeau, R.
- Quality in Unimode and Mixed-Mode designs: A Multitrait-Multimethod approach; 2010; Revilla, M.
- Elaborate Item Count Questioning: Why Do People Underreport in Item Count Responses?; 2010; Hirai, Y., Tsuchiya, T.
- Mixed-Mode Surveys and the Internet; 2010; de Leeuw, E. D.
- Do You Know Which Device Your Respondent Has Used to Take Your Online Survey?; 2010; Callegaro, M.
- Segmented or Overlapping Dual Frame Samples in Telephone Surveys; 2010; Boyle, J., Lewis, F., Tefft, B.
- Some Notes on the Probability Space of Statistical Surveys; 2010; Petrakos, G.
- Influence of Outliers on Some Multiple Imputation Methods; 2010; Quintano, C., Castellano, R., Rocca, A.
- The Ethics of Outsourcing Online Survey Research; 2010; Allen, P. J., Roberts, L. D.
- System and method of providing an online survey and summarizing survey response data; 2010; Ryan, C. J.
- The cancer survivor survey: Using Web-based technology to assess cancer survivor challenges; 2010; M., Skalla, K., Onega, T., Anton, K., Gallagher, S., Rhoda, J., DiSalvo , W., Dietrich, A. M.Smith,...
- Use of a Web-based Questionnaire in the Black Women's Health Study; 2010; W., Boggs, D. A., Palmer, J. R., Rosenberg, L.Russell, C. W.
- Reaching Emergency Medical Services Providers: Is One Survey Mode Better than Another?; 2010; Schmuhl, P., Van Duker, H., Gurley, K. L., Webster, A., Olson, L. M.
- Web-based Questionnaires: The Future in Epidemiology?; 2010; van Gelder, M. M. H. J, Bretveld, R. W., Roeleveld, N.
- Conducting an internet-based survey: benefits, pitfalls and lessons learned; 2010; Alessi, E. J., I.Martin, J. I.
- Statistical foundations of cell-phone surveys; 2010; Wolter, K., Smith, P., Blumberg, S. J.
- Epidemiologic Research and Web 2.0—the User-driven Web; 2010; Lee, B. K.
- L’uso di Internet nella ricerca sociale: vantaggi e svantaggi di una web survey; 2010; Pandolfini, V.
- Developing a Research Framework for Usability in Online Surveys: Human-Survey Interaction; 2010; Kaczmirek, L.
- Online Survey Research in the Work-Family Field: Basic Concepts and Definitions; 2010; Lambert, A. D.
- Comparative effectiveness report: online survey tools; 2010; Gottliebson, D., Layton, N., Wilson, E.
- Choosing Between Telephone and Online for Survey Data Collection ; 2010; Baker, R. P.
- Web survey design and usability; 2010; Karakoyun, F., Kurt, A. A.
- Results of Targeting Pre-Identified Minority, Unidentified Non-Internet and Vacant Homes in Two National...; 2010; DiSogra, C., Hendarwan, E.
- Does Providing Internet Access to Non-Internet Households Affect Reported Media Behavior for Latinos...; 2010; Dennis, J. M., DiSogra, C.
- Using KnowledgePanel® to Improve the Sample Representativeness and Accuracy of Opt-in Panel Data...; 2010; Dennis, J. M., Peugh, J., Graham, P.
- Self-administered mobile surveys: Usability and (non)participation; 2010; Scherrer, S., Bosnjak, M.
- Web panels: Replacement technology for market research; 2010; Goeritz, A.
- Social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors in web-based research: three longitudinal...; 2010; Crutzen, R., Goeritz, A.
- Attention and Usability in Internet Surveys: Effects of Visual Feedback in Grid Questions; 2010; Kaczmirek, L.
- Security and Data Protection: Collection, Storage, Feedback in Internet Research; 2010; Thiele, O., Kaczmirek, L.
- Wie empfinden Teilnehmer die Fragen in Online-Befragungen? Entwicklung eines Diktionärs für die automatische...; 2010; Kaczmirek, L., Baier, C., Züll, C.
- The effect of cash lottery on response rates to an online health survey among members of the Canadian...; 2010; Doerfling, P., Kopec, J., Liang, M. H., Esdaile, J. M.
- Reliability and Validity of an Internet-based Questionnaire Measuring Lifetime Physical Activity; 2010; De Vera, M. A., Ratzlaff, C., Doerfling, P., Kopec, J.
- A Web-Based Versus Paper Questionnaire on Alcohol and Tobacco in Adolescents; 2010; Lygidakis, C., Rigon, S., Cambiaso, S., Bottoli, E., Cuozzo, F., Bonetti, S., Della Bella, C., Marzo...
- Test-retest reliability of a questionnaire for the Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey; 2010; Bae, J., Joung, H., Kwon, K. N., Kim, Y. T., Kim, J. -Y., Park, S. -W.
- Using downloadable songs from Apple iTunes as a novel incentive for college students participating in...; 2010; McCree-Hale, R., De La Cruz, N. G., Montgomery, A. E.
- Designing Web Surveys in Marketing Research: Does Use of Forced Answering Affect Completion Rates?; 2010; Albaum, G., Roster, C. A.,Wiley, J. B., Rossiter, J., Smith, S. M.
- Methoden der Online-Forschung; 2010; Welker, M., Wünsch, C.
- A Study Of Technology Adoption By Researchers: Web and e-science infrastructures to enhance research...; 2010; Pearce, N.
- Nine issues for Internet-based survey research in service industries ; 2010; Wang, H.-C., Doong, H.-S.
- Determinants of Participation and Response Effort in Web Panel Surveys; 2010; Bruggen, E., Dholakia, U. M.
- Considering Mixed Mode Surveys for Questions in Political Behavior: Using the Internet and Mail to Get...; 2010; Atkeson, L. R., Adams, A. N., Bryant, L. A., Zilberman, L., Saunders, K.
- Online-Befragungen im Kontext von Lehrevaluationen – praktisch und unzuverlässig; 2010; Meinefeld, W.