Web Survey Bibliography
Background: Nonresponse to questionnaires can affect the validity of surveys and introduce bias. Offering financial incentives can increase response rates to postal questionnaires, but the effect of financial incentives on response rates to online surveys is less clear.
Objective: As part of a survey, we aimed to test whether knowledge of a financial incentive would increase the response rate to an online questionnaire.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial of 485 UK-based principal investigators of publicly funded health services and population health research. Participants were contacted by email and invited to complete an online questionnaire via an embedded URL. Participants were randomly allocated to groups with either “knowledge of” or “no knowledge of” a financial incentive (£10 Amazon gift voucher) to be provided on completion of the survey. At the end of the study, gift vouchers were given to all participants who completed the questionnaire regardless of initial randomization status. Four reminder emails (sent from the same email address as the initial invitation) were sent out to nonrespondents at one, two, three, and four weeks; a fifth postal reminder was also undertaken. The primary outcome measure for the trial was the response rate one week after the second reminder. Response rate was also measured at the end of weeks one, two, three, four, and five, and after a postal reminder was sent.
Results: In total, 243 (50%) questionnaires were returned (232 completed, 11 in which participation was declined). One week after the second reminder, the response rate in the “knowledge” group was 27% (66/244) versus 20% (49/241) in the “no knowledge” group (χ21 = 3.0, P = .08). The odds ratio for responding among those with knowledge of an incentive was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95 - 2.21). At the third reminder, participants in the “no knowledge” group were informed about the incentive, ending the randomized element of the study. However we continued to follow up all participants, and from reminder three onwards, no significant differences were observed in the response rates of the two groups.
Conclusions: Knowledge of a financial incentive did not significantly increase the response rate to an online questionnaire. Future surveys should consider including a randomized element to further test the utility of offering incentives of other types and amounts to participate in online questionnaires.
Journal of Medical Internet Research - Homepage (abstract) / (full text)
Web Survey Bibliography - Health (468)
- The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): Erectile Dysfunction Among Arabic-Speaking Internet Users...; 2011; Shaeer, K., Shaeer, O. K. Z.
- Bias in Online Recruitment and Retention of Racial and Ethnic Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men; 2011; Amsden, M., Coggia, T., DiClemente, R. J., Khosropour, C. M., Luisi, N., Sullivan, P. S., Wingood, G...
- Self-Control and its Relation to Emotions & Psychobiology: Evidence from a Day Reconstruction Method...; 2011; Baumeister, R., Daly, M., Delaney, L., MacLachlan, M.
- Anchoring vignettes: response consistency and order effects; 2011; Kapteyn, A., Smith, J. P., van Soest, A., Vonkova, H.
- Wireless Health Monitoring, Feedback, and Health Behaviors; 2011; Kooreman, P., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Web survey and embedded intervention on emergency department personnel perceptions of role in patient...; 2011; Bertsch, K. S., Boss, R. M., Cousins, A. C., Gardiner, F. G., Gibbs, F. J., Jay, G. D., Kobayashi, T...
- Effects of Incentives and Prenotification on Response Rates and Costs in a National Web Survey of Physicians...; 2011; Bonham, V., Day, B., Dykema, J., Sellers, S., Stevenson, J.
- Teens Ask Doctors on the Internet: A One-Year Survey of an Adolescent Health Internet Forum ; 2011; Hardoff, D., Rigler, S.
- Non-response bias in a web-based health behaviour survey of New Zealand tertiary students; 2011; Connor, J., Kypri, K., Langley, J. D., Maclennan, B., Samaranayaka, A.
- Observations about Respondent Behaviors and Survey Data from a Web Survey Commissioned by the U.S. Food...; 2011; Lin, C. T. J.
- The Use of Web Panels to Characterize Rare Conditions.; 2011; Boyle, J.
- Effects of Cue Lists and Question Format on Survey Response.; 2011; Lee, L., Krishnamurty, P., Bautista, R.
- Effects of Mode and Incentives on Response Rates, Costs, and Response Quality in a Mixed Mode Survey...; 2011; Stevenson, J., Dykema, J., Kniss, C., Black, P., Moberg, P.
- Effects of Differential Incentives on Response Rates in Four Countries for a Web-based Follow Up Survey...; 2011; McSpurren, K.
- Formative Research on MySpace: Online Methods to Engage Hard-to-Reach Populations ; 2011; Levine, D., Madsen, A., Wright, E., Barar, R. E., Santelli, J., Bull, S.
- Internet-Based Follow-Up Questionnaire for Measuring Patient-Reported Outcome after Total Hip Replacement...; 2011; Rolfson, O., Salomonsson, R., Garellick, G., E.Dahlberg, L. E.
- International web survey of chiropractic students about evidence-based practice: a pilot study; 2011; Banzai, R., Derby, D. C., Hondras, M. A.
- Can Internet surveys help us understanding allergic disorders? – results from a large survey in...; 2011; Kalogeromitros, D., Psaltopoulou, T., Makris, M., Koti, I., Chliva, C., Stefanadi, E., Hatziagelaki...
- Development and Pilot Testing of an Internet-Based Survey Instrument to Measure the Alcohol Brand Preferences...; 2011; Siegel, M., DiLoreto, J., Johnson, A., Fortunato, E. K., DeJong, W.
- Data quality assurance: an analysis of patient non-response; 2011; Derby, D. C., Haan, A., Wood, K.
- Population screening of risky alcohol and drug use via Internet and Interactive Voice Response (IVR):...; 2011; Sinadinovic, K., Wennberg, P., Berman, A. H.
- Developing and Testing a Web-Based Survey to Assess Educational Needs of Multidisciplinary Palliative...; 2011; Schulman-Green, D., Ercolano, E., Lazenby, M., McCorkle, R.
- A web-based survey on mephedrone; 2011; Carhart-Harris, R. L., King, L. A., Nutt, D. J.
- Assessing Response Bias in a Web Survey at a University Faculty; 2011; Menachemi, N.
- Does the number of choice sets matter? Results from a web survey applying a discrete choice experiment...; 2011; Bech, M., Kjaer, T., Lauridsen, J.
- Factorial trial found mixed evidence of effects of pre-notification and pleading on response to Web-...; 2011; Felix, L. M., Burchett, H. E., Edwards, P. J.
- Advantages and limitations of web-based surveys: evidence from a child mental health survey; 2011; Heiervang, E., Goodman, R.
- Sliders for the Smart: Type of Rating Scale on the Web Interacts With Educational Level; 2011; Funke, F., Reips, U. -D., Thomas, R. K.
- The feasibility of Web-based surveys as a data collection tool: a process evaluation ; 2011; Chizawsky L. L. K., Estabrooks, C. A., Sales, A. E.
- The weirdest people in the world?; 2010; Heine, S. J., Henrich, J., Norenzayan, A.
- Presentation of a single item versus a grid: Effects on the vitality and mental health subscales of...; 2010; Callegaro, M., Shand-Lubbers, J., Dennis, J. M.
- Paradata: a new data source from web-administered measures; 2010; Sowan, A. K., Jenkins, L. S.
- Application of a check-all-that-apply question for the evaluation of strawberry cultivars from a breeding...; 2010; Lado, J., Vicente, E., Manzzioni, A., Ares, G.
- Using Online Surveys to Assess Information Needs of Healthcare Professionals in Low Resource Settings...; 2010; Ohkubo, S., Sullivan, T.
- Can biomarkers be collected in an Internet survey? A pilot study in the LISS panel; 2010; Avendano, M., Mackenbach, J., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Collecting Genetic Samples in Population Wide (Panel) Surveys: Feasibility, Nonresponse and Selectivity...; 2010; Dohmen, T., Falk, A., Montag, C., Reuter, M., Schonlau, M., Schupp, J., Siegel, N., Sunde, U., Wagner...
- The Role of Landline and Cell Phone Usage Patterns in Nonreponse Error Potential Among Young Adults...; 2010; Currivan, D. B., Levine, B., Mayo, N.
- Using a Simulation Study to Examine Strategies for Combining Cell and Landline Survey Samples; 2010; Duffy, T., Bausch, S., Iachan, R., Lu, B.
- Meeting the Challenges of Converting a Large Establishment Survey from Paper to Electronic Administration...; 2010; Roe, D. J., Thalji, L., Loft, J., Flicker, L., Stockdale, J., Stagnitti, M.
- Assessing the Accuracy of the Face-to-Face Recruited Internet Survey Platform: A Comparison of Behavioral...; 2010; Villar, A., Malka, A., Krosnick, J. A.
- Internet Panels and Health Research: Findings from National RDD Surveys.; 2010; Boyle, J.
- The Subject Lines of Web Survey Invitations and Participation Rates; 2010; Titiz, H., Ziniel, S.
- Nonresponse Bias and the Impact of Incentives in a Survey of Physician Members of a Professional Organization...; 2010; Buttermore, N. R.
- The Effectiveness of Multiple Modes Among Young Adults; 2010; Anderson-Knott, M., Jorgensen, S., Armitage, J.
- Diversity of Methods: Assessment of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Multiplier Effects.; 2010; Ballou, J., Roff, B., Anderson, M.
- A Comparison of Psychometric Properties Between Internet and Paper Versions of Two Depression Instruments...; 2010; Andersson, G., Engstroem, I., Hollaendare, F.
- The Influence of Response Mode on Study Results: Offering Cigarette Smokers a Choice of Postal or Online...; 2010; Callas, P. W., Solomon, L. J., Hughes, J. R., Livingston, A. E.
- The cancer survivor survey: Using Web-based technology to assess cancer survivor challenges; 2010; M., Skalla, K., Onega, T., Anton, K., Gallagher, S., Rhoda, J., DiSalvo , W., Dietrich, A. M.Smith,...
- Use of a Web-based Questionnaire in the Black Women's Health Study; 2010; W., Boggs, D. A., Palmer, J. R., Rosenberg, L.Russell, C. W.
- Reaching Emergency Medical Services Providers: Is One Survey Mode Better than Another?; 2010; Schmuhl, P., Van Duker, H., Gurley, K. L., Webster, A., Olson, L. M.