Web Survey Bibliography
Background: Nonresponse to questionnaires can affect the validity of surveys and introduce bias. Offering financial incentives can increase response rates to postal questionnaires, but the effect of financial incentives on response rates to online surveys is less clear.
Objective: As part of a survey, we aimed to test whether knowledge of a financial incentive would increase the response rate to an online questionnaire.
Methods: A randomized controlled trial of 485 UK-based principal investigators of publicly funded health services and population health research. Participants were contacted by email and invited to complete an online questionnaire via an embedded URL. Participants were randomly allocated to groups with either “knowledge of” or “no knowledge of” a financial incentive (£10 Amazon gift voucher) to be provided on completion of the survey. At the end of the study, gift vouchers were given to all participants who completed the questionnaire regardless of initial randomization status. Four reminder emails (sent from the same email address as the initial invitation) were sent out to nonrespondents at one, two, three, and four weeks; a fifth postal reminder was also undertaken. The primary outcome measure for the trial was the response rate one week after the second reminder. Response rate was also measured at the end of weeks one, two, three, four, and five, and after a postal reminder was sent.
Results: In total, 243 (50%) questionnaires were returned (232 completed, 11 in which participation was declined). One week after the second reminder, the response rate in the “knowledge” group was 27% (66/244) versus 20% (49/241) in the “no knowledge” group (χ21 = 3.0, P = .08). The odds ratio for responding among those with knowledge of an incentive was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95 - 2.21). At the third reminder, participants in the “no knowledge” group were informed about the incentive, ending the randomized element of the study. However we continued to follow up all participants, and from reminder three onwards, no significant differences were observed in the response rates of the two groups.
Conclusions: Knowledge of a financial incentive did not significantly increase the response rate to an online questionnaire. Future surveys should consider including a randomized element to further test the utility of offering incentives of other types and amounts to participate in online questionnaires.
Journal of Medical Internet Research - Homepage (abstract) / (full text)
Web Survey Bibliography (6797)
- Designing Interactive Interventions in Web Surveys: Humanness, Social Presence and Data Quality; 2012; Zhang, C.
- The Effect of Mode on Participant Responses to Qualitative Research in Virtual Worlds; 2012; Dipko, S., Billington, C., Brick, P. D.
- The Direction of Rating Scales and Its Influence on Response Behavior in Web Surveys; 2012; Keusch, F.
- Estimating Mode Effects without Bias: A Randomized Experiment to Compare Mode Differences between Face...; 2012; Rivers, D., Vavreck, L.
- Mixed-mode design and Mode Effect in Surveying Military Veterans; 2012; Wang, W., Morin, R., Parker, K.
- Assessing Measurement Equivalence and Bias of Questions in Mixed-mode Surveys Under Controlled Sample...; 2012; Klausch, L. T., Hox, J., Schouten, B.
- Disentangling Mode and Nonresponse Effects in the World Trade Center Health Registry; 2012; Murphy, J., Brackbill, R., Yu, S., Wu, D., Walker, D., Turner, L., Stellman, S., Miller, S., Saleska...
- Mode Effects Measurement and Correction: A Case Study; 2012; Kennedy, C., Ackermann, A., Turakhia, C., Emerson, M. O., James, A.
- Maximizing Survey Participation for Retail Customers by Understanding Survey Mode and Incentive Preferences...; 2012; Cardador, J.
- Experimenting with Noncontingent and Contingent Incentives in a Media Measurement Panel; 2012; Lavrakas, P. J., Dennis, J. M., Peugh, J., Shand-Lubbers, J., Lee, E.
- What are the Odds? Lotteries versus Cash Incentives. Response Rates, Cost and Data Quality for a Web...; 2012; Stevenson, J., Dykema, J., Klein, L., Cyffka, K., Goldrick-Rab, S.
- How Likely?: Comparisons of Behavioral Intention Measurement Validity; 2012; Bremer, J., Thomas, R. K.
- Some Thoughts on a Framework for Statistical Inference from Nonprobability Samples; 2012; Santos, R.
- Opening Up Online: Social Networking and Online Survey Response Behaviors; 2012; Turner, S., Lackey, M., Irwin, N.
- An Analysis of the AAPOR 2011 Membership Survey Nonresponse and Paradata; 2012; Hammer, H., Murphy, J., Hamel, L., Harrison, C.
- Addressed-Based Sampling – A Better Sample? Exploring the Benefits of Using Addressed-Based Sampling...; 2012; Ellis, J, M., Rexrode, D. L.
- Optimal Response Formats for Online Surveys: Branch, Grid, or List?; 2012; Debell, M., Wilson, C., Jackman, S., Figueroa, L., Dropp, K.
- Data Quality from Low Cost Data Collection Methodologies; 2012; Traugott, M. W.
- Reducing Overreporting Voter Turnout in Seven European Countries–Results from a Survey Experiment...; 2012; Schwarzer, S., Kritzinger, S., Zeglovits, E.
- Investigating Nonresponse Bias in a Nonresponse Bias Study; 2012; Lavrakas, P. J., Dennis, J. M., Peugh, J., Shand-Lubbers, J., Lee, E., Charlebois, O.
- Multi-Mode or Multi-Choice; 2012; Hall, L. M., ZuWallack, R. S., Eggers, F. J.
- The DRC Model for Hot Comment Processing; 2012; Waller, V., Eckel, P., Davies, A., Chandonnet, A.
- Viability of Using Facebook to Increase Response Rates in an ABS Survey; 2012; Ruggiere, P., Sams, A., Niermann, A., Romero, E.
- Using the iPad2 as a Prize-based Incentive to Boost Response Rates; 2012; McClendon, R., Jenson, E., Olsen, D.
- The Effects of Vignette Placement on Survey Estimates: A Split Ballot Experiment; 2012; Strohm, C. Q., Seltzer, J. A., Bianchi, S. M.
- A Typology and Review of Web Evaluation Strategies; 2012; Wiggins, B., Romano Bergstrom, J. C., Turner, S.
- Drop-Off Point for Undergraduate Students on a Web-based Alcohol and Tobacco Use Questionnaire; 2012; Mitra, A.
- Home or Work or Both? Assessing the Role of Duplication of Website Visitations Using an Online Metered...; 2012; Ion, C., Rao, K., Varma, S., Yi, P.
- An Examination of the 2010 Census Be Counted Program and Its Effects on Census Coverage and Duplication...; 2012; Jackson, G. I., Wechter, K. M.
- Dual Frame Sample and Mixed Mode Survey Strategy for Improving Coverage Error; 2012; Tarnai, J., Pfingst, L., Solet, D.
- Response Effects of Symbolic Images in Satisfaction Scales; 2012; Tepman, Z., Henderson, V.
- Multiple Email Reminders and Response Rate for an Internet Based Survey; 2012; Brackbill, R., Yu, S., Walker, D., Turner, L., Miller, S., Farfel, M., Stellman, S.
- Web Survey with ABS Sample-A Viable Alternative to RDD?; 2012; Suzuki, J.
- A Demonstration of a Multi-Platform Mobile Survey Application: SurveyPulseTM, by RTI International; 2012; Roe, D. J., Zhang, Y., Keating, M.
- Turn that Frown Upside-Down: The Effects of Smiley Faces as Symbolic Language in Self-administered Surveys...; 2012; Libman, A., Smyth, J. D.
- To Weight, or Not to Weight, That is the Question: Survey Weights and Multivariate Analysis; 2012; Young, R., Johnson, D. R.
- Investigating the Impact of the Number of Grid Items on Web Survey Responses; 2012; Guo, F., Nunge, E.
- Yes-No versus Checkboxes Response Options in Web Surveys: What Form is Closer to Benchmarks?; 2012; Murakami, M., Callegaro, M., Henderson, V., Tepman, Z., Dong, Q.
- Effects of Progress Indicators on Short Questionnaires; 2012; Sedley, A., Callegaro, M.
- The JanDY Online Survey System; 2012; Kamstra, J., Henley, M., Johnson, M.
- Mode Matters: Isolating Selection ffects and Measurements Effects in a Mixed-Mode Survey; 2012; Bowyer, B. T., Rogowski, J. C.
- The Detection and Effects of Data From Potentially Ineligible Participants in Online Survey Research...; 2012; Grey, J.
- Guidelines for developing a robust web survey; 2012; Naithani, P.
- Internet Mobility Survey Sampling Biases in Measuring Frequency of Use of Different Transport Modes; 2012; Diana, M.
- Online Versus Phone Surveys: Comparison of Results for Bicycling Survey; 2012; Xing, Y., Handy, S. L.
- Survey non-response in an internet-mediated, longitudinal autism research study; 2012; Cohen, C., Lehmann, H., G., Law, P.Kalb, L. G.
- Bringing data from an online survey or spreadsheet into SPSS; 2012; Raftery, D.
- Web-based survey design for unravelling semi-compensatory choice in transport and urban planning; 2012; Kaplan, S., Bekhor, S., Shiftan, Y.
- Using e-surveys to access the views of football fans within online communities; 2012; Gibbons, T., Nuttall, D.
- Comparability of Internet and telephone data in a survey on the respiratory health of children; 2012; Plante, C. Jacques, L., Chevalier, S., Fournier, M.