Web Survey Bibliography
In online panels it is common practice to offer incentives for study participation. The current study aimed at answering the following questions: First, how effective are different incentives in enhancing participation in web-based studies? Second, how do these incentives affect data quality? And third, how do these effects change over time?
3227 newly recruited members of an online access panel were invited to seven subsequent survey waves. One half of the participants were offered a result summary for each wave completed, the other half did not receive this offer. In addition, one out of five incentives was promised for participation in each wave. Participants were offered either no incentive, money via bank transfer, money via PayPal, loyalty points, or a donation to charity (either a predetermined charity or a selectable charity). Panelists' willingness to participate was assessed by three measures per wave: Panel attrition, response rate, and retention rate. Data quality was measured in each wave by the number of missing values, the number of words written in answers to open-ended questions, and the tendency to use mid-point categories in close-ended questions. Latent growth curve models and path models were used to analyze the longitudinal effect of the independent variables.
Independent of the manipulations, response rate decreased linearly over the seven waves. Result summary without concurrent incentives accelerated this decline. Adding an incentive to the result summary offset this negative effect, but incentives without concurrent result summary did not heighten the response rate. Donation incentives and PayPal lowered the initial response rate. The number of written words increased by a gentle quadratic slope independent of the manipulations. Either type of incentive increased this quadratic slope. Otherwise, attrition, retention, missing values, and mid-point category use were influenced by incentives merely in a sporadic manner.
The findings suggest that the use of incentives needs to be considered carefully. Panelists might perceive result summaries, Paypal and donations as a burden rather than as gratification. Straightforward payments such as bank transfer and loyalty points appear to perform better, but they need time to bring forth positive effects on panelists' willingness to participate.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Germany (456)
- Does Mode Matter? Initial Evidence from the German Longitudinal Election Study (GLES); 2012; Blumenstiel, J. E., Rossmann, J.
- Best of both worlds – The INSA study 50plus; 2012; Geissler, H., Blome, C.
- The “MediaLiveTracker” – A New Online-Tool for Real-Time-Response-Measurement; 2012; Kercher, J., Bachl, M., Voegele, C., Vohle, F.
- Surveytainment 2.0: Why investing 10 more minutes more in constructing your questionnaire is worth considering...; 2012; Muehle, A., Tress, F., Schmidt, S., Winkler, T.
- Market research online community (MROC) versus focus group; 2012; Zuber, M.
- Data quality in MAWI and CAWI; 2012; Mavletova, A. M., Blasius, J.
- Can mobile-web surveys substitute classic web-surveys? Results from an exploratory, comparative method...; 2012; Bohn, A., Doering, N., Maxl, E.
- Scrutinizing Dynamics – Rolling panel waves in theory and practice; 2012; Faas, T., Blumenberg, J. N.
- The German Internet Panel: Design of a Probability-Based Online Survey; 2012; Blom, A. G., Gathmann, C., Holthausen, A., Riepe, C.
- The price we have to pay: Incentive experiments in the recruitment process for a probability-based online...; 2012; Schaurer, I., Struminskaya, B., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W.
- Effects of number of response options in web surveys: The role of verbal labels; 2012; Thorsdottir, F., Fuchs, M., Jonsdottir, J.
- Little experience with technology as a cause of nonresponse in online surveys; 2012; Struminskaya, B., Schaurer, I., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W.
- Comparing Item-Non-Response and Open Questions within different Web Survey Types; 2012; Silber, H., Lischewski, J., Leibold, J.
- Continuous large-scale volunteer web-surveys: The experience of Lohnspiegel and WageIndicator; 2012; Oez, F.
- Is Pretesting Established Among Online Survey Tool Users?; 2012
- An Evaluation of Two Non-Reactive Web Questionnaire Pretesting Methods; 2012; Lenzner, T.
- High potential for mobile Web surveys: Findings from a survey representative for German Internet users...; 2012; Funke, F., Wachenfeld, A.
- Better low-tech than sorry: How technophile questionnaires may affect psychological representativeness...; 2012; Funke, F., Reips, U. -D.
- Can Social Media Research replace traditional research methods?; 2012; Faber, T., Einhorn, M., Hofmann, O., Loeffler, M.
- Bad Boy Matrix Question – Whatcha gonna do when they come for you?; 2012; Tress, F.
- Effects of Static versus Dynamic Formatting Instructions for Open-Ended Numerical Questions in Web Surveys...; 2012; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- FamilyVote – Conducting online surveys with children and families; 2012; Geissler, H., Peeters, H.
- New Insights about market research with an iPad-panel; 2012; Manouchehri, A., Rieber, D., Moughrabi, C.
- Asking Probing Questions in Web Surveys: Which factors have an Impact on the Quality of Responses? ; 2012; Behr, D., Kaczmirek, L., Braun, M., Bandilla, W.
- Assessing the Quality of Survey Data ; 2012; Blasius, J.
- Exploring Animated Faces Scales in Web Surveys: Drawbacks and Prospects; 2012; Emde, M., Fuchs, M.
- Reminders in Web-Based Data Collection: Increasing Response at the Price of Retention?; 2012; Goeritz, A., Crutzen, R.
- Mixing modes in the LFS - Computer-assisted, cost effective and respondent friendly; 2011; Koerner, T., van der Valk, J.
- Probing in web surveys & response burden: first results from an international web survey; 2011; Behr, D., Bandilla, W., Kaczmirek, L., Braun, M., Majer, S.
- Establishing Cross-National Equivalence of Measures of Xenophobia: Evidence from Probing in Web Surveys...; 2011; Braun, M., Behr, D., Kaczmirek, L.
- Mobile, webmail, desktops: Where are we viewing email now?; 2011
- Assessing personality traits through response latencies using item response theory; 2011; Ranger, J., Ortner, T. M.
- Web-based rating scales: HTML 5 and other innovations; 2011; Funke, F.
- German Web-based Registry for Eating Disorders; 2011; Gross, G., Birgegård, A., Zipfel, S.
- E-dater, Artificial Actors, and German Households; 2011; Hebing, M.
- Seeing Through the Eyes of the Respondent: An Eye-tracking Study on Survey Question Comprehension; 2011; Lenzner, A., Kaczmirek, L., Galesic, M.
- Eye Tracking in testing questionnaires: What’s the added value?; 2011; Tries, S.
- Improving validity in web surveys with hard‐to‐reach targets: Online Respondent Driven Sampling...; 2011; Mavletova, A. M.
- Ignoring the compatibility of online questionnaires may bias the psychological composition of your sample...; 2011; Funke, F.
- Video enhanced web survey; 2011; Fuchs, M., Kunz, T., Gebhard, F.
- Scrolling or paging - it depends; 2011; Blanke, K.
- The Interactive Effects of Motivations and Trust in Anonymity on Adolescents' Enduring Participation...; 2011; Stiglbauer, B., Gnambs, T., Gamsjäger, M.
- The Research-Data-Centre in Research-Data-Centre Approach: A First Step Towards Decentralised International...; 2011; Bender, S., Heining, J.
- The German Access Panel and the Impact of Response Propensities; 2011; Amarov, B., Enderle, T., Muennich, R., Rendtel, U., Zins, S.
- Long-Term Effects in the PPSM Access Panel; 2011; Bartsch, S., Vehre, H., Engel, U.
- Online-Telephone Mixed-Mode Surveys Question Wording Experiments in The Netherlands and Germany; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- First Equals Most Important? Order Effects in Vignette- Based Measurement; 2011; Auspurg, K., Jaeckle, A.
- Equivalence of Measures of Xenophobia in Cross National Survey Research: Findings Based on a Web Probing...; 2011; Bandilla, W., Behr, D., Braun, M., Kaczmirek, L., Majer, S.
- Addressing Panel Attrition in Mobile Phone Panel Surveys: Can Incentives and Switching to Mobile Web...; 2011; Busse, B., Fuchs, M.
- A Psycholinguistic Look at Survey Question Design and Response Quality; 2011; Lenzner, T.