Web Survey Bibliography
In online panels it is common practice to offer incentives for study participation. The current study aimed at answering the following questions: First, how effective are different incentives in enhancing participation in web-based studies? Second, how do these incentives affect data quality? And third, how do these effects change over time?
3227 newly recruited members of an online access panel were invited to seven subsequent survey waves. One half of the participants were offered a result summary for each wave completed, the other half did not receive this offer. In addition, one out of five incentives was promised for participation in each wave. Participants were offered either no incentive, money via bank transfer, money via PayPal, loyalty points, or a donation to charity (either a predetermined charity or a selectable charity). Panelists' willingness to participate was assessed by three measures per wave: Panel attrition, response rate, and retention rate. Data quality was measured in each wave by the number of missing values, the number of words written in answers to open-ended questions, and the tendency to use mid-point categories in close-ended questions. Latent growth curve models and path models were used to analyze the longitudinal effect of the independent variables.
Independent of the manipulations, response rate decreased linearly over the seven waves. Result summary without concurrent incentives accelerated this decline. Adding an incentive to the result summary offset this negative effect, but incentives without concurrent result summary did not heighten the response rate. Donation incentives and PayPal lowered the initial response rate. The number of written words increased by a gentle quadratic slope independent of the manipulations. Either type of incentive increased this quadratic slope. Otherwise, attrition, retention, missing values, and mid-point category use were influenced by incentives merely in a sporadic manner.
The findings suggest that the use of incentives needs to be considered carefully. Panelists might perceive result summaries, Paypal and donations as a burden rather than as gratification. Straightforward payments such as bank transfer and loyalty points appear to perform better, but they need time to bring forth positive effects on panelists' willingness to participate.
Conference Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - Germany (420)
- Assessing personality traits through response latencies using item response theory; 2011; Ranger, J., Ortner, T. M.
- Web-based rating scales: HTML 5 and other innovations; 2011; Funke, F.
- German Web-based Registry for Eating Disorders; 2011; Gross, G., Birgegård, A., Zipfel, S.
- E-dater, Artificial Actors, and German Households; 2011; Hebing, M.
- Seeing Through the Eyes of the Respondent: An Eye-tracking Study on Survey Question Comprehension; 2011; Lenzner, A., Kaczmirek, L., Galesic, M.
- Eye Tracking in testing questionnaires: What’s the added value?; 2011; Tries, S.
- Improving validity in web surveys with hard‐to‐reach targets: Online Respondent Driven Sampling...; 2011; Mavletova, A. M.
- Ignoring the compatibility of online questionnaires may bias the psychological composition of your sample...; 2011; Funke, F.
- Video enhanced web survey; 2011; Fuchs, M., Kunz, T., Gebhard, F.
- Scrolling or paging - it depends; 2011; Blanke, K.
- The Interactive Effects of Motivations and Trust in Anonymity on Adolescents' Enduring Participation...; 2011; Stiglbauer, B., Gnambs, T., Gamsjäger, M.
- The Research-Data-Centre in Research-Data-Centre Approach: A First Step Towards Decentralised International...; 2011; Bender, S., Heining, J.
- The German Access Panel and the Impact of Response Propensities; 2011; Amarov, B., Enderle, T., Muennich, R., Rendtel, U., Zins, S.
- Long-Term Effects in the PPSM Access Panel; 2011; Bartsch, S., Vehre, H., Engel, U.
- Online-Telephone Mixed-Mode Surveys Question Wording Experiments in The Netherlands and Germany; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- First Equals Most Important? Order Effects in Vignette- Based Measurement; 2011; Auspurg, K., Jaeckle, A.
- Equivalence of Measures of Xenophobia in Cross National Survey Research: Findings Based on a Web Probing...; 2011; Bandilla, W., Behr, D., Braun, M., Kaczmirek, L., Majer, S.
- Addressing Panel Attrition in Mobile Phone Panel Surveys: Can Incentives and Switching to Mobile Web...; 2011; Busse, B., Fuchs, M.
- A Psycholinguistic Look at Survey Question Design and Response Quality; 2011; Lenzner, T.
- Testing for measurement equivalence of human values across online and paper-and-pencil surveys; 2011; Davidov, E., Depner, F.
- Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk for the recruitment of participants in Internet-based research; 2011; Reips, U. -D., Buffardi, L., Kuhlmann, T.
- A new approach to the analysis of survey drop-out. Results from Follow-up Surveys in the German Longitudinal...; 2011; Rossmann, J., Blumenstiel, J. E., Steinbrecher, M.
- Tracking the decision-making process – Findings from an Online Rolling Cross-Section Panel Study...; 2011; Faas, T.
- Social desirability and self-reported health risk behaviors in web-based research: three longitudinal...; 2011; Crutzen, R., Goeritz, A.
- From "Web Questions" to "Propensity Score Weighting": An Evaluation of Topics and...; 2011; Welker, M., Taddicken, M.
- Rich Profiles – Or: What's the problem with self-disclosure data?; 2011; Tress, F.
- Mobile Research Apps – Adding New Capabilities to Market Research; 2011; Rieber, D.
- The influence of personality traits and motives for joining on participation behavior in online panels...; 2011; Keusch, F.
- Asking sensitive questions in a recruitment interview for an online panel: the income question; 2011; Schaurer, I., Struminskaya, B., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W.
- Determinants of access-panel participation: Recent experiences from the recruitment of members for a...; 2011; Engel, U., Bartsch, S., Vehre, H.
- Speeders in Online Value Research: Cross-checking results of fast and slow respondents in two separate...; 2011; Beckers, T., Siegers, P., Kuntz, A.
- Effects of survey question clarity on data quality; 2011; Lenzner, T.
- Lösungsansätze gegen den Allgemeinarztmangel auf dem Land - Ergebnisse einer Online-Befragung unter Ä...; 2011; Steinhäuser, J., Annan, N. F., Roos, M., Szecsenyi, J., Joos, S.
- Question Comprehensibility and Satisficing Behavior in Web Surveys; 2011; Lenzner, T.
- Agree-Disagree Response Format versus Importance Judgment; 2011; Krebs, D.
- Germans' segregation preferences and immigrant group size: A factorial survey approach; 2011; Schlueter, E., Ullrich, J., Schmidt, P.
- Benefits of Structured DDI Metadata across the Data Lifecycle: The STARDAT Project at the GESIS Data...; 2011; Linne, M., Brislinger, E., Zenk-Moeltgen, W.
- Microdata Information System MISSY; 2011; Bohr, J.,
- Explaining more variance with visual analogue scales: A Web experiment; 2011; Funke, F.
- Cognitive process in answering questions: Are verbal labels in rating scales attended to?; 2011; Menold, N., Kaczmirek, L., Lenzner, T.
- Experiments on the Design of the Left-Right Self-Assessment Scale; 2011; Zuell, C., Scholz, E., Behr, D.
- Cognitive interviewing in web surveys: the use of probing questions in cross-national web surveys; 2011; Behr, D., Braun, M., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W.
- The impact of monetary incentives on completion and data quality in online surveys; 2011; van Veen, F., Goeritz, A., Sattler, S.
- Separating selection from mode effects when switching from single (CATI) to mixed mode design (CATI /...; 2011; Carstensen, J., Kriwy, P., Krug, G., Lange, C.
- Mobile-only – Persistent status or passage in the life course? Results from a Mobile Phone Panel...; 2011; Busse, B., Fuchs, M., Neuert, C.
- Building Online Panels in the Social Media Age; 2011; Loeb, C.
- Drop-out rates during completion of an occupation search tree in web-surveys; 2011; Tijdens, K.
- Why do respondents drop-out from online surveys? Results from follow-up surveys in the German Longitudinal...; 2011; Blumenstiel, J. E., Roßmann, J., Steinbrecher, M.
- Web Surveys: Re-(Search) for an Appropriate Design; 2011; Blanke, K.
- Left feels right! The optimal position of answer boxes in Web surveys; 2011; Galesic, M., Kaczmirek, L., Lenzner, T., Merkert, M.