Web Survey Bibliography
(a) Relevance & Research Question
High drop-out rates are considered a major shortcoming of web surveys and considerably threaten data quality. However, until recently survey breakoff has received limited scholarly attention and knowledge about the reasons causing respondents to terminate surveys early is still fractional. In political science, the topic has been particularly neglected. Enhanced understanding of the complex processes leading to breakoff is needed in order to develop standard guidelines for web surveys that help in minimising drop-out rates.
(b) Methods & Data
Connected to the German Longitudinal Election Study (GLES) a seven-wave campaign online tracking has been conducted with about 14,000 respondents, thereof 3,000 drop-outs. This data allows for a detailed analysis of drop-outs: Given the applied quota design, personal information is available even about those respondents who answered some questions but did not finish the survey. As many questions were included in each wave, yet being asked at different questionnaire positions and being surrounded by various items, contextual effects on drop-out can be analysed.
In terms of research methods, among other things, life tables were presented to observe how breakoffs are distributed throughout the survey. Discrete-time survival models with page-varying covariates are estimated for each wave separately, including both respondent characteristics as well as questionnaire and page characteristics.
Our main findings can be summarised as follows:
In accordance with recent research, we find drop-out to be a function of both respondent characteristics and page characteristics. For instance, higher educated people are less likely to break off, whereas open questions tend to produce significantly higher drop-outs.
In the course of the survey, the drop-out-risk tends to decrease.
Varying the context a question is embedded in, may affect the number of drop-outs, thus breakoff in web surveys is not unchallengeable.
(d) Added Value
Our findings confirm some results of previous research dealing with breakoff in web surveys. The reasons for breakoffs thus seem to be largely independent of the survey topic. Even more essential, based on the empirical results, some prospects for reducing the number of drop outs in web surveys by questionnaire and page design are provided.
Conference Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - 2010 (393)
- Early Stage Scoping: Building High Quality Survey Instruments Without High Costs; 2010; Stettler, K., Featherston, F.
- Effects of Personalization, Length and Choice of Mode on Cooperation Rates for Mixed Mode Recontact...; 2010; Steiger, D. M., Chattopadhyay, M., Royal, D.
- A Comparison of Web and Mail Survey Respondents Within a Mixed Mode National Survey; 2010; Shin, E., Johnson, T. P., Rao, K.
- Tracing Young Adults for a Telephone/Web Survey; 2010; Phillips, B. T.
- Does Providing a Choice of Survey Modes Influence Response?; 2010; Lesser, V. M., Newton, L., Yang, D.
- Incorporating a Web Option in a Two-Phase Mail Survey; 2010; Brick, P. D., Cantor, D., Han, D., Aponte, M.
- Improving Response to Mail and Web Mixed-Mode Surveys: The Effects of Offering Choice on Survey Response...; 2010; Millar, M. M., Dillman, D. A.
- Grappling with Grids: How Does Question Format Affect Data Quality and Respondent Engagement?; 2010; Grandmont, J., Graff, B., Goetzinger, L., Dorbecker, K.
- Does Familiarity Breed Contempt? Measuring and Comparing Survey Attitude Among New and Repeat Respondents...; 2010; de Leeuw, E. D.
- The Influence of Response Sets on the Results and Quality of Multivariant Analyses; 2010; Jandura, O., Brosius, H.-B.
- Non-Internet Households Who Were Given Internet Access to Participate in an Online Panel: Where Do They...; 2010; Scherpenzeel, A., Vis, C., de Vos, K., Leenheer, J.
- Kids' Life and Times: Using the Internet to Give Children a Voice; 2010; Lloyd, K.
- How to Improve Response Rates to Web Surveys: Practical Guidance Based on Theory and Experimentation; 2010; Dillman, D. A., Millar, M. M., Messer, B. L.
- Participant Dropout as a Function of Survey Length in Internet-Mediated University Studies: Implications...; 2010; Hoerger, M.
- Internet Access: Is Everyone Online Yet and Can We Survey Them There?; 2010; Smith, C., Spitz, G.
- Web Surveys; 2010; Wang, T.
- Panel management in a mixed-mode (Web/mobile) research world ; 2010; Townsend, L.
- How attrition/conditioning effects impact response bias in online panels ; 2010; Gittelmam, S. H., Trimarchi, E.
- Take these steps to build your research on a solid foundation ; 2010; Hardy, M.
- Thoughts on the rise and future of online research ; 2010; Day, D.
- Testing the Applicability of Respondent Driven Sampling as an Online Research Method to Sample Hidden...; 2010; Pajak, D.
- Seriousness Checks are Useful to Improve Data Validity in Online Research; 2010; Diedenhofen, D., Aust, F., Ullrich, S., Musch, J.
- Enrichment of Qualitative Research through Online Approaches: New Insights due to Online CoCreation...; 2010; Krischke-Ramaswamy, M., Knorr, H.
- Developing and Evaluating a Student Online Panel.; 2010; Stiglbauer, B., Gamsjäger, M., Gnambs, T., Batinic, B., Altrichter, H.
- Online Access Panels: A detailed look at different Ways of Entering, their Costs and Participation Behavior...; 2010; Führer, R., Keusch, F.
- Eye Tracking and Cognitive Interviewing: Steps to improve online questionnaires; 2010; Tries, S., Sattelberger, S.
- Trial by Ordeal, a medieval approach to a modern day problem; 2010; Cape, P., Cavallaro, K.
- How new engagement techniques and question approaches are revolutionizing online research data gathering...; 2010; Puleston, J.
- Social Networking Sites: New approaches for Online-Panels?; 2010; Drosdow, M., Geißler, H.
- The Impact of Visual and Functional Design Elements in Online Survey Research; 2010; Hammen, K.
- Non-Substantive Responses and Navigation in Web Surveys; 2010; Couper, M. P., Baker, R. P., Mechling, J.
- Theoretical model of context-sensitive mobile methods; 2010; Maxl, E.
- Can a professional questionnaire layout make up for a boring topic? The mediating role of topic interest...; 2010; Keusch, F., Mayerhofer, W., Jungreithmaier, S., Weilbuchner, N., Führer, R., Kling, H.
- Using Propensity Score Weighting to Reduce Bias of a Swiss Market Research Web Panel; 2010; Wiegand, G., Jella, H., Beat, H., Stefan, L.
- Potentials and Constraints of Propensity Score Weighting to Improve Web Survey Quality; 2010; Steinmetz, S., Tijdens, K.
- Are well-selected panelists better respondents? Insights into the effect of a master screener on panel...; 2010; Irmer, C., Tress, F.
- Selection Bias in Web Surveys and the Use of Propensity Scores in Forecasting the Result of the 2009...; 2010; Musch, J., Ullrich, S., Diedenhofen, D.
- KnowledgePanel®: Processes & Procedures Contributing to Sample Representativeness & Tests for Self...; 2010; Dennis, J. M.
- A validation of well-being and happiness surveys for administration via the Internet ; 2010; Howell, R. T., Rodzon, K. S., Kurai, M., Sanchez, A. H.
- A short self-report measure of problems with executive function suitable for administration via the...; 2010; Buchanan, T., Heffernan, T. M., Parrott, A. C., Ling, J., Rodgers, J., Scholey, A. B.
- A Comparison of Psychometric Properties Between Internet and Paper Versions of Two Depression Instruments...; 2010; Andersson, G., Engstroem, I., Hollaendare, F.
- The Influence of Response Mode on Study Results: Offering Cigarette Smokers a Choice of Postal or Online...; 2010; Callas, P. W., Solomon, L. J., Hughes, J. R., Livingston, A. E.
- Reading the Public Mind; 2010; O'Connell, A.
- Combining Link-Tracing Sampling and Cluster Sampling to Estimate Totals and Means of Hidden Human Populations...; 2010; Félix-Medina, M. H., Monjardin, P. E.
- Increasing Respondents' Use of Definitions in Web Surveys; 2010; Peytchev, A., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P., Tourangeau, R.
- Quality in Unimode and Mixed-Mode designs: A Multitrait-Multimethod approach; 2010; Revilla, M.
- Elaborate Item Count Questioning: Why Do People Underreport in Item Count Responses?; 2010; Hirai, Y., Tsuchiya, T.
- Mixed-Mode Surveys and the Internet; 2010; de Leeuw, E. D.
- Do You Know Which Device Your Respondent Has Used to Take Your Online Survey?; 2010; Callegaro, M.
- Segmented or Overlapping Dual Frame Samples in Telephone Surveys; 2010; Boyle, J., Lewis, F., Tefft, B.