Web Survey Bibliography
The visual capabilities offered by the internet provide a platform by which magazine readers may be queried about their viewing, noting and recognizing of ad copy appearing in specific magazine issues. However, it is well known that “samples” used in these studies may be subject to substantial bias arising from the non-probability nature of the sample selection process. Furthermore, when correctly computed, the response rates on many internet panels are quite low. In those situations when certain key variables are statistically linked (i.e. strongly correlated) with sample selection bias and key substantive outcomes, these variables may be used to adjust or calibrate these estimates. This is sometimes known as post stratification in traditional full-probability sampling and model-based estimation for model based (non-probability) sampling. In examining a large number of internet samples used to collect data on ad-noting and ad recognition it is has been found that these outcome measures are associated and correlated, to varying degrees, with gender, time spent reading, place of reading, percent of pages opened, and frequency of reading. Furthermore, we have found the distribution of these variables among internet respondents is substantially different from those in traditional full-probability surveys. We have developed a series of sample weighting procedures to remove a substantial amount of the “selection bias” linked to these reading qualities. This bias reduction step results in meaningful changes in readership ad-noting and ad identification. This paper will show, using actual data, how our approach to bias reduction weighting was developed, and how it impacts the outcomes of ad-noting and identification. In our decision to apply these weights we have adopted a standard minimization of mean squared error approach and perspective. That is, any weighting which increases variable random error must be offset with bias reduction. Bias reduction occurs when changes in the survey estimates are observed. Within a single magazine issue, the overall changes in ad noting scores are not typically large. However, there are ads in which noting scores do show substantial change. These changes are consistent with expectations linked to the adjustment measures. Furthermore, while an outside validation of the model based estimates has not been undertaken, our examination of overall impact across magazines is highly consistent with those expected on the basis of the variables involved. Thus, while we do not claim that our results are externally validated, we are comfortable in saying that the adjustments are in the expected direction and appear to make sense.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Worldwide Readership Research Symposia (17)
- Online Print Publications And The Viabiity Of Charging For On Line Content ; 2009; Vogel, J., Lee-LeGassick, K., Shullman, B., D’Amico, T.
- Measuring Internet And Press Audience In The Media Convergence Era. In Search Of A New Paradigm In Researching...; 2009; Pawlak, J., Póltorak, M.
- The Decline And Fall Of The Response Rate: The Fightback ; 2009; Green, A., Staplehurst, S., Windle, R.
- Internet Measurement of Ad-noting: Sampling and Statistical Issues; 2009; Frankel, M. R., Baim, J., Galin, M., Agresti, J., Augemberg, K.
- A Structured Approach For Reducing Bias In Surveys Using Online Access Panels ; 2009; Farrer, N., Dayan, Y.
- In Search of Readers: A Brave New World For Researches; 2009; Crassweller, A., Rogers, J., Williams, D.
- Audipresse Premium: Using The Internet To Help Measure Press Readership ; 2009; Saint-Joanis, G., Néraudau, J.
- Questionnaire Intelligence: New Rules Of Engagement For Online Survey Design ; 2009; McMahon, L., Stamp, R.
- Presenting Publications in Online Print Audience Questionnaires; 2009; Carroll, J., Collins, S., Farrer, N.
- Can Lengthy Surveys Work Online? The Experience of TGI GB; 2009; Greene, D., Impedovo, D.
- Methodological Tests On Online Research: Incidence Of Formal Aspects/Questionnaire Layout On The Results...; 2009; Schmutz, B., Lê Van Truoc, O.
- Online Interviewing through Access Panel: Quantity and Quality Assurance; 2009; Petric, I., Appel, M., de Leeuw, E. D.
- Sample Surveys Based on Internet Panels: 8 Years of Learning; 2009; Baim, J., Galin, M., Frankel, M. R., Becker, R., Agresti, J.
- ONLINE DATA COLLECTION – SOLUTION OR BAND-AID?; 2007; Crassweller, A., Williams, D., Thompson, I.
- EMBRACING TECHNOLOGY IN READERSHIP SURVEYS; 2007; Impedovo, D., Greene, D.
- MAGAZINE EFFECTIVENESS NOW DIRECTLY OBSERVABLE; 2007; Green, M.
- THE READERSHIP CURRENCY: DUTCH DESIGN How a new methodology for AIR measurement opens up new perspectives...; 2007; Petric, I., Appel, M.