Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: For several years, the Federal Statistical Office (FSO) has been working on the systematic implementation of questionnaire testing. A pretest laboratory was established in 2007 and complemented by an eye tracker in 2009. Questionnaires of online surveys are now increasingly evaluated by qualitative testing methods and redesigned to reduce the burden for respondents and to increase data quality of official statistics.
Methods & Data: Pretesting online questionnaires shall improve their usability, functionality and comprehensibility. At the FSO, a three step approach is applied: Firstly, we observe eye movements and facial expressions (in real-time), while respondents deal with the questionnaire. Secondly, we conduct cognitive interviews afterwards in order to discover the reasons why respondents proceeded the way they did. Thirdly, we evaluate the process of self-completing by eye tracking data (e. g. ‘Areas of Interest’) and the sequence of mouse clicks.
Results: Each source of information has its strengths and weaknesses: Generally, it is challenging to analyze eye tracking data. It is for example difficult to assess whether a longer fixation duration indicates problems or simply a higher interest in a question. Consequently, the interpretation might be misleading without profound background knowledge. From a different angle, results derived from cognitive interviews are of minor value if the answers of respondents seem to be determined by effects like acquiescence, social desirability or limited capacity for remembering and verbalizing cognitive processes. By linking our sources of information (“triangulation”) we are able to provide more valid pretesting results and recommendations for improving online questionnaires.
Added Value: When online questionnaires are tested at the FSO, cognitive interviews are conducted after eye tracking itself. Combining both methods has given us insights into users’ behaviour when reading off screen and their expectations concerning navigation. The analyses illustrate whether respondents perceive links to detailed explanations, skip instructions or entire lists of response options. General advice is provided on wording and design principles for improving online questionnaires. Our findings lead us directly to Steve Krug’s (2006) saying: “Don’t make me think!”
Conference Homepage (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Germany (456)
- Measuring working conditions in a volunteer web survey; 2013; de Pedraza, P., Villacampa, A.
- Sampling online communities: using triplets as basis for a (semi-) automated hyperlink web crawler.; 2013; Veny, Y.
- Prison break: Releasing offline experiments from methodological constraints by transforming them into...; 2013; Förstel, H., Manthei, K., Mohnen, A., Berger, G.
- Comparison of psychometric properties of internet versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability...; 2013; Vesteinsdottir, V., Reips, U. -D., Joinson, A. N., Porsdottir, F.
- Why are you leaving me?? - Personality predictors of answering drop out in an online-study; 2013; Thielsch, M., Nestler, S., Back, M.
- Propensity Score Weighting – Can Personality Adjust for Selectivity?; 2013; Glantz, A., Greszki, R.
- Research Design as an Influencing Factor for Reliability in Online Market Research; 2013; Wengrzik, J., Theuner, G.
- Ethics, privacy and data security in web-based course evaluation; 2013; Salaschek, M., Meese, C., Thielsch, M.
- Seducing the respondent – how to optimise invitations in on-site online research?; 2013; Póltorak, M., Kowalski, J.
- Influence of mobile devices in online surveys; 2013; Maxl, E., Baumgartner, T.
- E-questionnaire in cross-sectional household surveys; 2013; Karaganis, M.
- GESIS Online Panel Pilot: Results from a Probability-Based Online Access Panel; 2013; Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W., Schaurer, I., Struminskaya, B., Weyandt, K.
- Online Survey – Research with children on advertising impact; 2013; Funkenweh, V., Busch, J., Amthor, A. L., Boeer, A., Gaedke, J.
- HTML5 and mobile Web surveys: A Web experiment on new input types; 2013; Funke, F.
- Metadata on the demographics of online research: Results from a full-range study of available online...; 2013; Burger, C., Stieger, S.
- How the screen-out influence the dropout of a commercial panel; 2013; Bartoli, B.
- Beyond methodology - some ethical implications of "doing research online"; 2013; Heise, N.
- Innovation in Data Collection: the Responsive Design Approach; 2013; Bianchi, A., Biffignandi, S.
- Break-off and attrition in the GIP amongst technologically experienced and inexperienced participants...; 2013; Blom, A. G., Bossert, D., Clark, V., Funke, F., Gebhard, F., Holthausen, A., Krieger, U., Wachenfeld...
- Nonresponse and Nonresponse Bias in a Probability-Based Internet Panel; 2013; Blom, A. G., Bossert, D., Funke, F., Gebhard, F., Holthausen, A., Krieger, U.
- Rewards - Money for Nothing?; 2013; Cape, P. J., Martin, P.
- Effects of incentive reduction after a series of higher incentive waves in a probability-based online...; 2013; Struminskaya, B., Kaczmirek, L., Schaurer, I., Bandilla, W.
- Timing of Nonparticipation in an Online Panel: The effect of incentive strategies; 2013; Douhou, S., Scherpenzeel, A.
- How Do Lotteries and Study Results Influence Response Behavior in Online Panels?; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Sample composition discrepancies in different stages of a probability-based online panel; 2013; Bosnjak, M., Haas, I., Galesic, M., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P.
- Metering mobile usage. Insights from global Arbitron mobile trends panel; 2012; Verkasalo, H.
- Is „chapterisation“ a viable alternative to traditional progress indicators ?; 2012; Spicer, R., Dowling, Z.
- Online Questionnaires: Development of ‘basic requirements’; 2012; Tries, S., Blanke, K.
- Pros and cons of Internet based User Satisfaction Surveys; 2012; Consoli, A., Matsulevits, L.
- Between demand and reality: Ensuring efficiency and quality in pretesting questionnaires; 2012; Sattelberger, S., Blanke, K.
- How to provide high data quality in online-questionnaires: Setting guidelines in design; 2012; Tries, S., Nebel, S., Blanke, K.
- WebSM Study: Survey software features overview ; 2012; Vehovar, V.; Cehovin, G.; Kavcic, L.; Lenar, J.
- Challenges of assessing the quality of a prerecruited probability-based panel of internet users in...; 2012; Struminskaya, B., Kaczmirek, L.
- Item comparability in cross-national surveys: results from asking probing questions in cross-national...; 2012; Behr, D., Braun, M., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W.
- Assessing Cross-National Equivalence of Measures of Xenophobia: Evidence from Probing in Web Surveys; 2012; Behr, D., Braun, M., Kaczmirek, L.
- Mobile Befragungen: Was Big Data mit kleinen Geräten zu tun hat; 2012
- Item non-response in open-ended questions: Who does not answer on the meaning of left and right?; 2012; Scholz, E., Zuell, C.
- Innovation der Online-Datenerhebung für wissenschaftliche Forschungen. Das niederländische MESS-Projekt...; 2012; Das, M.
- Comparing Ranking Techniques in Web Surveys; 2012; Blasius, J.
- Design of CAWI Instruments for Social Surveys ; 2012; Blanke, K.
- Enhancing Web Surveys With New HTML5 Input Types; 2012; Funke, F.
- GESIS Online Access Panel Pilot Study: Recruitment and Panel Maintenance; 2012; Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W., Schaurer, I., Struminskaya, B., Weyandt, K.
- The German Internet Panel: First Results from the Recruitment Phases; 2012; Blom, A. G.
- Assessing the Magnitude of Non-Consent Biases in Linked Survey and Administrative Data; 2012; Sakshaug, J. W., Kreuter, F.
- Improving RDD Cell Phone Samples. Evaluation of Different Pre-call Validation Methods; 2012; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Marktforschung mit dem iPad-Panel von Axel Springer Media Impact; 2012
- Effects of Personalized Versus Generic Implementation of an Intra-Organizational Online Survey on Psychological...; 2012; Mueller, K., Straatmann, T., Hattrup, K., Jochum, M.
- Positioning of Clarification Features in Web Surveys: Evidence from Eye Tracking Data; 2012; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Using Adaptive Questionnaire Design in Open-ended Questions: A Fieldexperimental Study on the Size of...; 2012; Fuchs, M., Emde, M.
- Exploring New Pathways to Survey Recruitment; 2012; Bilgram, V., Stadler, D.Jawecki, G.