Web Survey Bibliography
Title Improving Survey Research on the World-Wide Web Using the Randomized Response Technique
Source Dimensions of Internet Science, Reips, U.D., Bosnjak, M. (eds.), Pabst Science Publishers: Lengerich
Access date 28.05.2004
Full text pdf (88k)
Abstract The randomized response technique guarantees the anonymity of respondents in surveys aimed at determining the frequency of socially undesirable, embarrassing or criminal behavior. A random number generator (e.g., a dice or a coin) decides whether the respondent is asked to answer honestly to the critical question, or whether he or she is urged to answer with "yes", irrespective of the question content. The researcher does not know the outcome of the random experiment. Thus, he never knows whether an individual "yes"-answer was determined by the outcome of the dice throw, or whether the respondent actually exhibited the sensitive behavior. Using appropriate statistical procedures, the true proportion of respondents answering "yes" to the critical question can be determined. Validation studies show that sensitive behaviors are admitted to more often than in conventional surveys when the randomized response technique is being used. It is possible, however, that an unknown proportion of respondents does not answer as directed by the randomizing device. Such failure to obey to the rules of the randomized response technique (RRT) leads to an underestimation of the frequency of the sensitive behavior. Clark and Desharnais (1998) have therefore developed a method to determine the proportion of such cheating respondents. It combines conventional survey techniques with an experimental approach and is based on a between-subject manipulation of the applying random probabilites. The method allows to compute a confidence interval for the true value of the frequency of sensitive behaviors. Ideally, if the rules of the RRT are being followed (which can be tested), the method makes it possible determine the exact frequency of a socially undesirable, embarrassing, or criminal behavior of interest. In an exemplary experimental World-Wide Web survey, the frequency of tax evasion was determined using the cheating detection technique. As compared to a conventional survey, the results show an enhanced readiness to admit to tax fraud when the randomized response technique is being used. The question for tax fraud was nevertheless sensitive enough to lead some respondents into cheating. The experimental manipulation allowed to determine the proportion of cheaters, however, and a confidence interval for the true frequency of tax fraud could be calculated.
Year of publication2001
Bibliographic typeBook section
Web Survey Bibliography - Standards, codes (430)
- Online Social Sciences; 2002; Batinic, B., Reips, U. -D., Bosnjak, M.
- BCE & AXA Overcome Access and Confidentiality Hurdles to Web Surveys; 2002; Anonymous
- Think before you dial; 2002; Gillin, D. L.
- Effect of trust on customer acceptance of Internet banking; 2002; Suh, B., Han, I.
- Attitudes toward Internet Privacy: Slovenian Internet users's view; 2002; Kovacic, M., Vehovar, V.
- Innovations in Survey Research: An Application of Web-Based Surveys; 2002; Sills, S.J., Song, C.
- Restricted privacy: Information privacy as a culture-specific construct; 2002; Ribak, R.
- The Impact of Privacy and Security Concerns on the Willingness to Provide Sensitive Information about...; 2002; Aoki, K., Elasmar, M. G.
- Ethics revisited: Traditional research ethics and new ethical challenges in reseraching internet contexts...; 2002; Elgesem, D.
- Internet studies and new ethical challenges - making common ground in the international researcher society...; 2002; Ess, C.
- Online Research and Anonymity; 2002; Sassenberg, K., Kreutz, S.
- An Experimental Comparison of Knowledge Networks and The GSS; 2002; Bradburn, N. M.
- Toward a Typology of Internet Users and Online Privacy Concerns; 2002; Sheehan, K. B.
- Forms of Research in MUDs; 2002; Utz, S.
- Privacy Perceptions and Online Practices; 2002; Viseu, A., Clement, A., Aspinall, J.
- Ethische Dimensionen der Online-Forschung; 2001; Dzeyk, W.
- Metaevaluation of the Web-Based ATE Survey Evaluation System; 2001; Hartmann, D., Loizides, G.
- Marketing research in the new millennium: emerging issues and trends; 2001; Malhotra, N. K., Peterson, M.
- Ethics and the Internet: Issues Associated with Qualitative Research; 2001; de Lorme, D. E., Sinkhan, G. M., French, W.
- The External Ethics Audit: A Guided Experience in Self-Directed Web Inquiry; 2001; DuFrene, D. D.
- Medical internet ethics: a field in evolution; 2001; Dyer, K. A., Thompson, C. D.
- A Primer on Internet Organizational Surveys; 2001; Simsek, Z., Veiga, J. F.
- Web research -- the final frontier?; 2001; Wickham, S., Stewart, S.
- Internet users' adoption of Web retailing: user and product dimensions; 2001; Fenech, T., O'Cass, A.
- Technical and Legal Approaches to Unsolicited Electronic Mail; 2001; Sorkin, D. E.
- Analysis of Internet Users' Level of Online Privacy Concerns; 2001; O'Neil, D.
- Dimensions of Internet Science; 2001; Reips, U. -D., Bosnjak, M.
- Improving Survey Research on the World-Wide Web Using the Randomized Response Technique; 2001; Musch, J., Broder, A., Klauer, K. C.
- Statement about Internet Polls; 2001; NCPP Polling Review Board
- Methodological variables in Web-based research that may affect results: Sample type, monetary...; 2001; O'Neil, K. M., Penrod, S. D.
- Seeking explanation in theory: Reflections on the social practices of organizations that distribute...; 2001; Robbin, A., Koball, H.
- Sampling for Web-Based Surveys; 2001; de Angelis, C.
- Strategies For Implementing An In-House Internet Based Research Capability: Lessons Learned In Leveraging...; 2001; Cookson, P.
- Publishing a Major Government Report in Electronic Format - the Implications for Social Researchers; 2001; Walker, A., Connor, S.
- Everything You Need To Know About Online Data Collection Regulations; 2001; Ustaran, E.
- Ethics of Internet Research: Contesting the Human Subjects Research Model; 2001; Bassett, E. H., O'Riordan, K.
- Studying the Amateur Artist: A Perspective on Disguising Data Collected in Human Subjects Research on...; 2001; Bruckman, A.
- Research Ethics in Internet-Enabled Research: Human Subjects Issues and Methodological Myopia; 2001; Walther, J. B.
- What is special about the ethical issues in online research?; 2001; Elgesem, D.
- Ethical Issues of Online Communication Research; 2001; Capurro, R., Pingel, C.
- Consumer privacy and online marketing: Bringing the human back into the picture; 2001; Brooks, L., Airey, A.
- On-line market research; 2001; Miller, T. W., Dickson, P. R.
- Representations or People; 2001; White, M.
- Blaise Internet Services put to the test: Web-surveying the construction industry; 2000; Wings, H., Roos, M.
- Using Web questionnaires for judgement and decisoin making research; 2000; Baron, J., Siepmann, M.
- Computer software and qualitative analysis: trends, issues and resources; 2000; Lee, R. M., Esterhuizen, L.
- Privacy in Market Research: Rights, Responsibilities and Remedies; 2000; Murphy, P. E.
- Walking the line: ethical and legal issues in Internet research; 2000; Klemm, P., Nolan, M.
- Internet Communication and Qualitative Research: A Handbook for Researching Online; 2000; Mann, C., Stewart, F.
- Measuring response rates in online surveys; 2000; MacElroy, B.