Web Survey Bibliography
Title Improving Survey Research on the World-Wide Web Using the Randomized Response Technique
Source Dimensions of Internet Science, Reips, U.D., Bosnjak, M. (eds.), Pabst Science Publishers: Lengerich
Access date 28.05.2004
Full text pdf (88k)
Abstract The randomized response technique guarantees the anonymity of respondents in surveys aimed at determining the frequency of socially undesirable, embarrassing or criminal behavior. A random number generator (e.g., a dice or a coin) decides whether the respondent is asked to answer honestly to the critical question, or whether he or she is urged to answer with "yes", irrespective of the question content. The researcher does not know the outcome of the random experiment. Thus, he never knows whether an individual "yes"-answer was determined by the outcome of the dice throw, or whether the respondent actually exhibited the sensitive behavior. Using appropriate statistical procedures, the true proportion of respondents answering "yes" to the critical question can be determined. Validation studies show that sensitive behaviors are admitted to more often than in conventional surveys when the randomized response technique is being used. It is possible, however, that an unknown proportion of respondents does not answer as directed by the randomizing device. Such failure to obey to the rules of the randomized response technique (RRT) leads to an underestimation of the frequency of the sensitive behavior. Clark and Desharnais (1998) have therefore developed a method to determine the proportion of such cheating respondents. It combines conventional survey techniques with an experimental approach and is based on a between-subject manipulation of the applying random probabilites. The method allows to compute a confidence interval for the true value of the frequency of sensitive behaviors. Ideally, if the rules of the RRT are being followed (which can be tested), the method makes it possible determine the exact frequency of a socially undesirable, embarrassing, or criminal behavior of interest. In an exemplary experimental World-Wide Web survey, the frequency of tax evasion was determined using the cheating detection technique. As compared to a conventional survey, the results show an enhanced readiness to admit to tax fraud when the randomized response technique is being used. The question for tax fraud was nevertheless sensitive enough to lead some respondents into cheating. The experimental manipulation allowed to determine the proportion of cheaters, however, and a confidence interval for the true frequency of tax fraud could be calculated.
Year of publication2001
Bibliographic typeBook section
Web Survey Bibliography - Psychological issues (234)
- Introduction: Psychology and the Internet; 2002; Taylor, J.
- Assessment of Mode-Effects in a Web-enabled Study of Civic Attitudes; 2002; Laird, G., Wiebe, E. F., Thalji, L., Pulliam, P.
- Internet-Based Psychological Experimenting: Five Dos and Five Don'ts; 2002; Reips, U. -D.
- Older Adults Living Through and With Their Computers; 2002; Clark, D. J.
- The Kid's Experimental Psychology Lab: A Web Site for Internet Research with Children; 2002; Frick, A., Reips, U. -D.
- Online Social Sciences; 2002; Batinic, B., Reips, U. -D., Bosnjak, M.
- Psychological Experimenting on the World Wide Web: Investigating content effects in syllogistic reasoning...; 2002; Musch, J., Klauer, K. C.
- The Mouse or the Pencil? A Psychometric Comparison of Web-Based and Traditional Survey Methodologies; 2002; Mertler, C. A., Earley, M. A.
- Citizen Surveys on the Web: General Population Surveys of Community Opinion; 2002; Miller, T. I., Miller Kobayashi, M., Caldwell, E., Thurston, S., Collett, B.
- Personality research on the Internet: A comparison of Web-based and traditional instruments in take-...; 2002; Cronk, B. C., West, J. L.
- Online Longitudinal Survey Research: Viability and Participation; 2002; Hiskey, S., Troop, N.A.
- Comparing Web Surveys and Paper & Pencil Surveys: Measurement Error and Mode Differences; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- Paper and Pencil versus Web Survey. Measurement Effects and Mode Differences; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- On the use of college students in social science research: Insights from a second‐order meta...; 2001; Peterson, R. A.
- Introduction to behavioral research on the internet; 2001; Birnbaum, M. H.
- Ethical issues in qualitative research on internet communities; 2001; Eysenbach, G., Till, E. J.
- Stimulus delivery on the Web: What can be presented when calibration isn t possible; 2001; Krantz, J. H.
- Satisfaction Survey by Web or by Paper? A Case Study; 2001; Laughlin, B.
- Knowing Me, Knowing You: Reciprocal Self-Disclosure in Internet-Based Surveys; 2001; Joinson, A. N.
- Dyspnea During Panic Attacks: An Internet Survey of Incidences of Changes in Breathing; 2001; Anderson, B., Ley, R.
- Confusion of Group Interest and Self-Interest in Parochial Cooperation on Behalf of a Group; 2001; Baron, J.
- The Web Experimental Psychology Lab: Five years of data collection on the Internet; 2001; Reips, U. -D.
- Is physician Internet research accurate?; 2001; Dietel, K.
- The Mind Over the Web: The Quest for the Definition of a Method for Internet Research; 2001; Riva, G.
- Improving Survey Research on the World-Wide Web Using the Randomized Response Technique; 2001; Musch, J., Broder, A., Klauer, K. C.
- E-mail Survey Response Rates: A Review; 2001; Sheehan, K. B.
- Humanizing Self-Administered Surveys: Experiments on Social Presence on the Web and Interactive Voice...; 2001; Steiger, D. M., Couper, M. P., Tourangeau, R.
- Virtual Selves and Web Surveys; 2001; Lozar Manfreda, K., Couper, M. P., Vohar, M., Rivas, S., Vehovar, V.
- The cognitive psychology online laboratory; 2000; Francis, G., Neath, I., Surprenant, A. M.
- Tell me, what did you see? The stimulus on computers; 2000; Krantz, J. H.
- The WWW as a research medium: An illustrative survey on paranormal belief; 2000; Goeritz, A., Schumacher, J.
- A Meta-Analysis of Response Rates in Web- or Internet-Based Surveys; 2000; Cook, C., Heath, F., Thompson, R. L.
- Understanding youth using online research methods; 2000; Geraci, J.
- The Psychology of Survey Response; 2000; Tourangeau, R., Rips, L. J., Rasinski, K.
- Comparing Online and Telephone Research Methods with Physicians; 2000; Gelb, L.
- Psychological Experiments on the Internet; 2000; Birnbaum, M. H.
- Validity of Web-based Psychological Research; 2000; Krantz, J. H., Reeshad, D.
- A Brief History of Web Experimenting; 2000; Musch, J., Reips, U. -D.
- The Web Experiment Method: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Solutions; 2000; Reips, U. -D.
- Potential of the Internet for Personality Research; 2000; Buchanan, T.
- PsychExps: An On-Line Psychology Laboratory; 2000; McGraw, K. O., Tew, M. D., Williams, J. E.
- The Server-Side of Psychology Web Experiments; 2000; Schmidt, W. C.
- Internet research: Self-monitoring and judgments of attractiveness; 2000; Buchanan, T.
- Human sexual behavior: a comparison of college and Internet surveys; 2000; Bailey, R., Foot, W., Throckmorton, B.
- A Disk by Mail Survey of Pupils in Primary Schools: Data Quality and Logistics; 1999; van Hattum, M. J. C., de Leeuw, E. D.
- Online-replication of results from evolutionary psychology research – sex differences in sexual...; 1999; Voracek, M., Stieger, S., Gindl, A.
- Online research with children; 1999; Reips, U. -D.
- Computer Literacy and Attitudes toward the Computer: On the Equivalence of Online- und Paper-Pencil-...; 1999; Richter, T., Naumann, J., Noller, S.
- The nature of Internet addiction: Psychological factors in compulsive Internet use; 1999; Greenfield, D.N.
- Conception and Implementation of the Siemens Employee Survey with Continuous Immediate Valuation through...; 1999; Bauer, W., Hauptmann, C.