Web Survey Bibliography
Web surveys, being self-administered, ensure more privacy for the respondent and there is considerable evidence that web surveys result in less social desirable answers. However, the absence of an interviewer may also be seen as a disadvantage, as there are no interviewers to motivate respondents and probe them.
In this paper we report on an experiment in which a particular type of question format, i.e. how the “do not know” option is presented and whether or not a probe is used, affects answers to web and telephone surveys.
In interview surveys, usually a ‘do-not-know’-option is not explicitly offered to a respondent, but interviewers can accept it. It is considered good practice to train interviewers in using a probe after an initial ‘do-not-know’ to reduce item-nonresponse.
In web surveys designers are hesitant to offer an explicit do-not-know option for fear of encouraging respondents to choose this option as a quick answer. One the other hand, not accepting do-not-know and issuing an error message insisting on an answer, may lead to either irritation and more break-offs or to guessing and less valid answers.
Using the interactivity of the web, we emulated friendly interviewer probing behaviour in a probability based Internet panel. The questionnaire contained a series of questions, which in previous selfadministered (mail and web) surveys showed a high percentage of item-nonresponse. A two by two experimental design was used: (1) explicit offering of do-not-know vs. no do-not-know option, and (2) directly accepting a do-not-know vs. only accepting it after a friendly probe. As baseline for comparison a fifth condition was added with the ‘standard’ web option: an error message with no acceptance of continuation without an answer. The number of resulting do-not-know answers in each condition are
evaluated and compared with the results of a telephone survey on the same topic.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Hox, J. (27)
- Random versus Systematic Error in a Mixed Mode Online-Telephone Survey; 2013; Hox, J., Scherpenzeel, A., Boeve, A., Boeve, A., de Leeuw, E. D.
- Estimating Measurement Effects of Survey Modes From Between and Within Subject Designs; 2013; Klausch, L. T., Hox, J., Schouten, B.
- Does one really know?: Avoiding noninformative answers in a reliable way.; 2013; de Leeuw, E. D., Boevee, A., Hox, J.
- Assessing the Mode-dependency of Survey Response and Non-response Bias; 2012; Klausch, L. T., Hox, J., Schouten, B.
- Question or Mode Effects in Mixed-Mode surveys: A Cross-cultural study in the Netherlands, Germany,...; 2012; de Leeuw, E. D., Nicolaas, G., Campanelli, P., Hox, J.
- Assessing Measurement Equivalence and Bias of Questions in Mixed-mode Surveys Under Controlled Sample...; 2012; Klausch, L. T., Hox, J., Schouten, B.
- The Representativity of Web Surveys of the General Population compared to Traditional Modes and Mixed...; 2012; Klausch, L. T., Schouten, B., Hox, J.
- Matrix vs. Single Question Formats in Web Surveys: Results from a large scale experiment; 2012; Klausch, L. T., de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., de Jongh, A., Roberts , A.
- Online-Telephone Mixed-Mode Surveys Question Wording Experiments in The Netherlands and Germany; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- Flexibility of Web Surveys: Probing 'do-not-know' over the Phone and on the Web; 2011; Hox, J., de Leeuw, E. D.
- Mode Effect or Question Wording? Measurement Error in Mixed Mode Surveys; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Surveying the General Population: Coverage bias in European Web Surveys; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Mohorko, A.
- Measurement Error in Mixed Mode Surveys: Mode or Question Format?; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- Internet Surveys as Part of a Mixed-Mode Design; 2010; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- Mode Effect or Question Wording? Source of Measurement Error in Mixed Mode Surveys; 2010; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Scherpenzeel, A., Stam, S., Zandvliet, R.
- Emulating Interviewers in an Online Survey: Experimental Manipulation of ‘Do-Not-Know’ Over...; 2010; Hox, J.
- Donations to charity as incentives in online panels; 2009; Goeritz, A.; Hox, J.
- Missing data; 2008; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- International Handbook of Survey Methodology; 2008; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Dillman, D. A.
- Mixed-mode Surveys: When and Why; 2008; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Dillman, D. A.
- Self-Administered Questionnaires: Mail Survey and Other Applications; 2008; de Leeuw, E. D. Hox, J.
- The influence of advance letters on response in telephone surveys; 2007; de Leeuw, E. D., Callegaro, M., Hox, J., Korendijk, E., Lensvelt-Mulders, G. J.
- Mixed Mode Data Collection Strategies in Surveys; 2006; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- Prevention and Treatment of Item Nonresponse; 2003; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Huisman, M.
- From theoretical concepts to survey question; 1997; Hox, J.
- Overcoming the Problems of Special Interviews on Sensitive Topics: Computer Assisted Self-Interviwing...; 1997; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Kef, S., van Hattum, M. J. C.
- The effect of computer-assisted interviewing on data quality: A review.; 1995; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Snijkers, G.