Web Survey Bibliography
For self-administered instruments, questions asking if respondents engaged in a series of different behaviors can be formatted using:
Check-all response formats in which respondents are asked to mark all of the categories that apply under the assumption that marked categories are equivalent to "yes" and unmarked categories are equivalent to "no;"
Check-lists response formats in which questions are presented in a grid or matrix and "yes" or "no" are offered as explicit choices; or
Stand-alone response formats in which each question is presented separately and with its own set of "yes" and "no" categories.
For web surveys, the small body of research comparing check-all to check-list formats shows that checklists are associated with respondents endorsing a larger number of the individual questions (providing higher counts of the behaviors) and taking longer to answer the questions (possibly reflecting deeper processing of the items). However, other research on web surveys demonstrates that long questions and grid/matrix formats may encourage breakoffs. Thus, a plausible alternative to either the check-all or check-list format is to format items as stand-alone questions. To the best of our knowledge no one has compared all three of these response formats simultaneously and in a web survey, and that is the focus of the current experiment. We examined the three response formats for several series of questions about news consumption and social activities in a web survey of college students (RR1 18.3%). We examine how the formats differ with regard to the following outcomes: breakoff rates, endorsement of the individual items, completion times, primacy effects, and criterion validity.
Conference Homepage (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - The American Association for Public Opinion Research (AAPOR) 66th Annual Conference, 2011 (58)
- Up Means Good: The Impact of Screen Position on Evaluative Ratings in Web Surveys.; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- Exploring Health-related Experiences and Access to Care: Differences between Online and Telephone Survey...; 2011; Doty, M. M., Peugh, J., Shand-Lubbers, J.
- Using Community Information and Survey Methodology for Bias Reduction to Enhance the Quality of the...; 2011; Harvey, J., Prabhakaran, J., Spera, C., Zhang, Z.
- Data Collection: Sample Members Responses, Influences, and Perception of Data Security.; 2011; Jeannis, M., Terry, T. L., Thomas-Banks, D.
- Usability Issues from Testing a Census Web Survey: Results from Testing of the Census Quality Survey...; 2011; Ashenfelter, K. T., Holland, T., Nichols, E. M., Quach, V.
- Examination of Panel Conditioning Effects in a Web-Based 2007-2008 Election Study.; 2011; Dennis, J. M., Kruse, Y., Tompson, T.
- Mode Differences in a Mixed-Mode ABS Design.; 2011; Bautista, R., Datta, R., Scholfield Hepburn, P., Yan, T.
- Examining Response Rates and Patterns in a Multimode Experiment: A Study of Department Chairs/Heads...; 2011; Foster, K. N., Gaughan, M.
- Increasing (or Decreasing) Response Rate by Changing the Subject of Email Invitations.; 2011; Henderson, V.
- Differential Mailing Methodologies on Response Rates: Testing Advance Notices, Blast Telephone Messages...; 2011; Gentry, R. J., Pens, Y.
- A Comparative Analysis of Voter Misreport in Two Modes of Interviewing: Telephone and Online.; 2011; Winneg, K.
- Response Quantity, Response Quality, and Costs of Building an Online Panel via Social Contacts.; 2011; Toepoel, V.
- More comparisons of Probability and Non-Probability Sample Internet Surveys: The Dutch NOPVO Study.; 2011; Weiss, R., Krosnick, J. A., Yeager, D. S.
- The Use of Web Panels to Characterize Rare Conditions.; 2011; Boyle, J.
- The Influence Of The Direction Of Likert-Type Scales In Web Surveys On Response Behavior In Different...; 2011; Keusch, F.
- Same Family, Different Planet: Comparing the Views of Teens and Parents on Their Relationship and Potential...; 2011; Vaughan, R., Feinstein, E. C., Peugh, J., Shand-Lubbers, J.
- A Stimulus Package for Stubborn Sample Members: Boosting Web Survey Participation through Strategic...; 2011; Franklin, J., Tate, N., Simpson, J., Paoli, N.
- Recruiting and Hiring: The Impacts of Specialized Skill Sets.; 2011; Jeannis, M., Lopez, C.
- Category Selection Probing in Online Access Panels.; 2011; Behr, D., Kaczmirek, L., Braun, M., Bandilla, W.
- Cleaving the Past Behind: A Comparison of Response Formats in the Measurement of Ethnic and Racial Origins...; 2011; Barlas, F. M., Thomas, R. K., Higgins, W. B.
- An Injured Party?: A Comparison of Political Party Response Formats in Party Identification.; 2011; Schwarz, S., Barlas, F. M., Thomas, R. K., Corso, R. A., Szoc, R.
- Asking Sensitive Questions: Do They Affect Participation In Follow-Up Surveys?; 2011; Schaurer, I., Struminskaya, B., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W.
- Results of a Survey Experiment on Frequency Reporting: Religious Service Attendance from the 2010 ANES...; 2011; Debell, M., Figueroa, L.
- Exploring Visual Design Effects In Web Survey Questions. An Experimental Study Using Animated Answer...; 2011; Emde, M., Fuchs, M.
- Designing Questions for Web Surveys: Effects of Check-List, Check-All, and Stand-Alone Response Formats...; 2011; Dykema, J., Schaeffer, N. C., Beach, J., Lein, V., Day, B.
- Effects of Cue Lists and Question Format on Survey Response.; 2011; Lee, L., Krishnamurty, P., Bautista, R.
- How the Order of Response Options in a Running Tally Can Affect Online Survey Estimates.; 2011; Callegaro, M., DiSogra, C., Wells, T.
- Comparing Response Propensities between a Web Mail Multi-Mode Survey and a Mail Survey.; 2011; Suzer-Gurtekin, Z., Elkasabi, M.
- Who Follows The Rules? Within Household-Selection Procedures In Web And Mail Surveys Of The General...; 2011; Olsson, K., Smyth, J., Stange, M., Walton, L.
- An Investigation of the Impact of Stylistic Features on Web Survey Responses.; 2011; Medway, R., Tourangeau, R.
- Visual Design and Usability of Filter and Follow-up Questions in a Web Survey.; 2011; Ramirez, C. M.
- Investigating The Impact Of Scale Height, Width, And Spacing On Responses In Web Surveys.; 2011; Sun, H.
- Display Matters: A Test of Visual Display Options in a Web-Based Survey.; 2011; Romano Bergstrom, J. C., Chen, J. M., Gilbert, T. R., Jans, M.
- Measuring and Stimulating Respondent Attentiveness in Web Surveys.; 2011; Berinsky, A., Luks, S., Rivers, D.
- Are you who you say you are? Using a Multisource Cross-validation Methodology for Panel Membership Information...; 2011; Rao, K., Dolson, T., Kinnucan, M.
- Differential Sampling Based on Historical Individual-Level Data in Online Panels.; 2011; Kelly, R. H.
- Costs Error Optimization for Cell-Landline Dual Frame Surveys.; 2011; Slavec, A.; Vehovar, V.
- Web Survey Live Validations - What Are They Doing?; 2011; Crawford, S. D.; McClain, C.
- Comparing Numeric and Text Open-End Responses in Mail and Web Surveys.; 2011; Olson, K.; Smyth, J.
- Effects of Response Formats when Measuring Attitudes in Consumer Web Surveys Across Markets.; 2011; Couper, M. P.; Nunge, E.
- How Can We Believe What They Say? The Role of Missing and Validating Data in Panelists; 2011; Rao, K.
- Re-Examining the Validity of Different Survey Modes for Measuring Public Opinion in the U.S.: Findings...; 2011; Ansolabehere, S.; Fraga, B.; Schaffner, B. F.
- How to Survey All 14 000 Swedish Local Political Representatives And Get 10 000 Responses.; 2011; Gilljam, M.; Granberg, D.; Holm, B.; Persson, M.
- Driving Respondents to the Web: Experimental Trial of Benefit Appeals and Impacts on Survey Completion...; 2011; Moore, D.
- Measuring User Satisfaction in the Lab: Questionnaire Mode, Physical Location, and Social Presence Concerns...; 2011; Jans, M., Romano, J. C., Ashenfelter, K. T., Krosnick, J. A.
- Minimizing Item Nonresponse in a School-based Web Survey of High School Students.; 2011; Burns, L., Dever, J.
- Interactive interventions in web surveys can increase response accuracy.; 2011; Conrad, F. G.
- Impact on Data Quality of Making Incentives Salient in Web Survey Invitations.; 2011; Zhang, C.
- Effects of Mode and Incentives on Response Rates, Costs, and Response Quality in a Mixed Mode Survey...; 2011; Stevenson, J., Dykema, J., Kniss, C., Black, P., Moberg, P.
- Effects of Differential Incentives on Response Rates in Four Countries for a Web-based Follow Up Survey...; 2011; McSpurren, K.