Web Survey Bibliography
Attitude measurement in web surveys mostly relies on requiring respondents to indicate their agreement or disagreement with each of several items under the same Likert-type scale in a grid format. As it is known that respondents do not only attend to the words that convey the questions but also to the visual language of a questionnaire (i.e., format and shape of response scales, verbal and numerical labels of scale points, spacing, positioning, and order of response options) it is essential to understand how this effects the response process. Although there is no conclusive evidence about the influence of the direction of extreme point labelling (e.g., Belson, 1966; Friedman et al., 1993; Salzberger & Koller, 2010; Weng & Cheng, 2000), applying the “near means related” heuristic (Tourangeau et al., 2004; 2007) to horizontal Likert-type scales would suggest that the proximity between the item and the positive anchor of the scale in a agree-to-disagree format would lead to different results than a reversed scale (disagree-to-agree format).
This study aims to bring forward how the direction of Likert-type scales in grid formats influences the response behavior of different respondent groups. In two independent web surveys with online panel members and professionals respondents were assigned to one of four treatment groups. The direction of Likert-type scales as well as the use of numerical labelling of scale points was experimentally varied in a full-factorial 2 (agree-to-disagree vs. disagree-to-agree) x 2 (with numerical labels vs. without numerical labels) design. The influence of scale presentation was measured on different indicators of data quality (response latency, item omission, non-differentiation in grids, response sets).
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Web Survey Bibliography - Keusch, F. (14)
- The Influence of Answer Box Format, Personal Topic Interest, and Respondent Characteristics on Response...; 2013; Keusch, F.
- The role of topic interest and topic salience in online panel web surveys.; 2012; Keusch, F.
- The Direction of Rating Scales and Its Influence on Response Behavior in Web Surveys; 2012; Keusch, F.
- Open-ended Questions in Web Surveys: One Large vs. Ten Small Boxes; 2012; Keusch, F.
- The influence of social desirability on data quality in face-to-face and web surveys; 2012; Keusch, F.
- How to Increase Response Rates in List-Based Web Survey Samples; 2012; Keusch, F.
- The influence of personality traits and motives for joining on participation behavior in online panels...; 2011; Keusch, F.
- Does the direction of Likert-type scales influence response behavior in web surveys?; 2011; Keusch, F.
- The Influence Of The Direction Of Likert-Type Scales In Web Surveys On Response Behavior In Different...; 2011; Keusch, F.
- Does Making The Survey Topic More Salient Lead To An Expert Bias? – The Influence of Announcing...; 2010; Keusch, F., Mayerhofer, W., Weilbuchner, N., Jungreithmaier, S.
- Online Access Panels: A detailed look at different Ways of Entering, their Costs and Participation Behavior...; 2010; Führer, R., Keusch, F.
- Can a professional questionnaire layout make up for a boring topic? The mediating role of topic interest...; 2010; Keusch, F., Mayerhofer, W., Jungreithmaier, S., Weilbuchner, N., Führer, R., Kling, H.
- Maßnahmen zur Steigerung der Responserate bei listenbasierten Stichproben in Webbefragungen; 2009; Keusch, F.
- Increasing response rates in list based samples; 2009; Keusch, F., Kurz, H., Penzkofer, P.