Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: Recently, there has been a surge in the use of Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a way of recruiting participants for online research. Mechanical Turk (MT) is a mini job market, where short and easy jobs are posted by “employers” and completed by “workers” for relatively little pay. Workers are primarily motivated by payment. In economics, a field in which many online studies have recently used MT, this may be a valid recruitment method. However, from a psychology and social science perspective, it seems questionable to employ "workers" as participants. The main motivation of research participants in these fields is usually to contribute to science, help researchers, and to learn about one's self. Thus, we expected that participants recruited from MT would provide lower quality of data than participants recruited via other sources.
Methods & Data: For a large-scale test development project with 160 items, the multiple site entry technique was used to recruit samples from different sites and in different modes. Among the recruitment sites and modes were mailing lists, web study lists, blog announcements, Facebook groups, and MT. Overall, there were 1583 respondents in the study, among them 1190 recruited via MT.
Results: Participants recruited via MT had faster response times (mean difference: 14859ms/page; median difference: 3348ms/page) and answered more to the middle of response scales than participants recruited via other sources. In fact, out of the 64 items with different means, MTurkers scored more in the middle of the scale in 50 items.
Added Value: Several indicators support the hypothesis that participants recruited via MT provide lower quality data than participants from traditional sources for online research. We speculate that the root of these findings is that participants sign up as "worker." Workers respond to be paid and research participants respond to help with research. A second reason why MT workers provide lower quality data may be tied to the forums they have established where jobs are discussed, including online studies. It may well be that rumors and experiences spread in these forums lead to a decrease in data quality.
Conference Homepage (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Germany (456)
- Where does the Fair Trade price premium go? Confronting consumers' request with reality; 2013; Langen, N., Adenaeuer, L.
- Experiments in Obtaining Data Linkage Consent in Web Surveys ; 2013; Sakshaug, J. W., Kreuter, F.
- On the Impact of Response Patterns on Survey Estimates from Access Panels; 2013; Enderle, T., Muennich, R., Bruch, C.
- Evaluating the left‐right dimension: Category Selection Probing conducted in an online access...; 2013; Huefken , V.
- Explaining Interview Duration in Web Surveys on Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Multilevel Approach...; 2013; Gummer, T., Rossmann, J.
- Methodological, legal and technical perspectives on the feasibility of web survey paradata in German...; 2013; Sattelberger, S.
- Random versus Systematic Error in a Mixed Mode Online-Telephone Survey; 2013; Hox, J., Scherpenzeel, A., Boeve, A., Boeve, A., de Leeuw, E. D.
- Online Survey Participation via Mobile Devices: implications for nonresponse; 2013; Poggio, T., Bosnjak, M.
- Mobile devices a way to recruit hard-to-reach groups? Results from a pilot study comparing desk top...; 2013; Toepoel, V., Lugtig, P. J.
- The Relation of Survey Topic and Participation Behavior. Analyzing Unit Nonresponse using web-generated...; 2013; Zillmann, D., Schmitz, A., Blossfeld, H. P.
- Web questionnaires in official population surveys: Do's and don'ts First experiments and impacts...; 2013; Blanke, K.
- Avatare in der Marktforschung: Effekte künst-licher Interviewer im Online-Interview; 2013; Luetters, H.
- Möglichkeiten zur impliziten Messung von Emotionen am Beispiel webcambasierter Gesichtsausdruckserkennung...; 2013; Wachenfeld, A., Moentmann, A., Bernet, F.
- Mode effects in Labour Force Surveys - do they really matter?; 2013; Koerner, T.
- Identifying and Mitigating Satisficing in Web Surveys: Some Experimental Evidence; 2013; Rossmann, J.
- Does left still feel right? The optimal position of answer boxes in Web surveys - revisited; 2013; Lenzner, T., Kaczmirek, L.,Galesic, M.
- Latent legitimacy: joint effects of religious orientation on the association between values and acceptance...; 2013; Henseler, A. K., Siegers, P., Beckers, T.
- Identifying Satisficing Respondents in Web Surveys: A Comparison of Different Response Time-Based Approaches...; 2013; Rossmann, J.
- Comparison of quality of web survey and CATI data using unobtrusive response latencies; 2013; Mayerl, J.
- Evaluating the middle category in the left-right self-placement question: Category Selection Probing...; 2013; Hufken, V., Rottinghaus, B.
- Validity of Measuring Educational Attainment - Education and Value Orientation in the European Values...; 2013; Ortmanns, V.
- Using Eye Tracking Data to Understand Respondent's Processing of Rating Scales; 2013; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Advancing the field of questionnaire translation - identifying problems, discussing methods, pushing...; 2013; Behr, D., Dorer, B., Van Houten, G
- European Values Study - methodological and substantive applications; 2013; Luijkx, R., Jagodzinski, W.
- The Impact of Culture and Economy on Values and Attitudes; 2013; Duelmer, H., Voicu, M.
- Educational attainment in cross-national surveys: instrument design, data collection, harmonisation...; 2013; Schneider, S.
- Mode Effects in Mixed-Mode Surveys: Prevention, Diagnostics, and Adjustment 1; 2013; de Leeuw, E. D., Dillman, D. A., Schouten, B.
- Data Collection in Sociolinguistics: Methods and Applications; 2013; Mallinson, C., Childs, B., Van Herk, G.
- Online Survey Participation via Mobile Devices: Findings From Seven Access Panel Studies; 2013; Bosnjak, M., Poggio, T., Funke, F.
- Use of Drag-and-Drop Rating Scales in Web Surveys and Its Effect on Survey Reports and Data Quality; 2013; Kunz, T.
- Online Panels: Recruitment Based on “Hot Topics” – What are the Consequences?; 2013; Andreasson, M., Martinsson, J.
- The Effectiveness of Mailed Invitations for Web Surveys; 2013; Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P., Kaczmirek, L.
- Effects of Lotteries on Response Behavior in Online Panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Lotteries and study results in market research online panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Cognitive Probes in Web Surveys: On the Effect of Different Text Box Size and Probing Exposure on Response...; 2013; Behr, D., Bandilla, W., Kaczmirek, L., Braun, M.
- Pros and cons of virtual interviewers – vote in the discussion about surveytainment; 2013; Póltorak, M., Kowalski, J.
- The fish model: What factors affect participants while filling in an online questionnaire?; 2013; Mohamed, B., Lorenz, A., Pscheida, D.
- Interview Duration in Web Surveys: Integrating Different Levels of Explanation; 2013; Rossmann, J., Gummer, T.
- The monetary value of good questionnaire design; 2013; Tress, F.
- Technical and methodological meta-information on current practices in online research: A full population...; 2013; Burger, C., Stieger, S.
- Using interactive feedback to enhance response quality in Web surveys. The case of open-ended questions...; 2013; Emde, M., Fuchs, M.
- Reducing Response Order Effects in Check-All-That-Apply Questions by Use of Dynamic Tooltip Instructions...; 2013; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Slide to ruin data: How slider scales may negatively affect data quality and what to do about it; 2013; Funke, F.
- Measuring wages via a volunteer web survey – a cross-national analysis of item nonresponse; 2013; Steinmetz, S., Annmaria, B.
- Identifying and Mitigating Satisficing in Web Surveys: Some Experimental Evidence; 2013; Blumenstiel, J. E., Rossmann, J.
- Does one really know?: Avoiding noninformative answers in a reliable way.; 2013; de Leeuw, E. D., Boevee, A., Hox, J.
- Online Mixed Mode Surveying using a Responsive Design; 2013; Kissau, K.
- Sensitive Topics in PC and Mobile Web Surveys; 2013; Mavletova, A. M., Couper, M. P.
- Mobile Research Performance: How Mobile Respondents Differ from PC Users Concerning Interview Quality...; 2013; Schmidt, S., Wenzel, O.
- Who responds to website visitor satisfaction surveys?; 2013; Andreadis, I.