Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: Recently, there has been a surge in the use of Amazon's Mechanical Turk as a way of recruiting participants for online research. Mechanical Turk (MT) is a mini job market, where short and easy jobs are posted by “employers” and completed by “workers” for relatively little pay. Workers are primarily motivated by payment. In economics, a field in which many online studies have recently used MT, this may be a valid recruitment method. However, from a psychology and social science perspective, it seems questionable to employ "workers" as participants. The main motivation of research participants in these fields is usually to contribute to science, help researchers, and to learn about one's self. Thus, we expected that participants recruited from MT would provide lower quality of data than participants recruited via other sources.
Methods & Data: For a large-scale test development project with 160 items, the multiple site entry technique was used to recruit samples from different sites and in different modes. Among the recruitment sites and modes were mailing lists, web study lists, blog announcements, Facebook groups, and MT. Overall, there were 1583 respondents in the study, among them 1190 recruited via MT.
Results: Participants recruited via MT had faster response times (mean difference: 14859ms/page; median difference: 3348ms/page) and answered more to the middle of response scales than participants recruited via other sources. In fact, out of the 64 items with different means, MTurkers scored more in the middle of the scale in 50 items.
Added Value: Several indicators support the hypothesis that participants recruited via MT provide lower quality data than participants from traditional sources for online research. We speculate that the root of these findings is that participants sign up as "worker." Workers respond to be paid and research participants respond to help with research. A second reason why MT workers provide lower quality data may be tied to the forums they have established where jobs are discussed, including online studies. It may well be that rumors and experiences spread in these forums lead to a decrease in data quality.
Conference Homepage (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Solicitations & incentives (627)
- The Effect of Differential Mailing Methodologies on Response Rates: Testing Advanced Notices, Pre-Recorded...; 2013; Pens, Y., Cantave, M. A., Gentry, R. J.
- The Influence of Respondent Incentives on Item Nonresponse and Measurement Error in a Web Survey; 2013; Felderer, B., Kreuter, F., Winter, J.
- Using Motivating Prompts to Increase Responses to Open-ended Questions in Mixed-mode Surveys: Where...; 2013; Israel, G. D.
- Differential Incentives in a Dual Mode Survey of Health Care Providers; 2013; Roff, B., Barrett, K.
- The Effect of Attempting to Recruit Respondents to a Web-Based Diary on Overall Response Rate; 2013; Cantave, M. A. Gentry, R. J.
- Comparisons of Online Recruitment Strategies: Craigslist, Facebook, Google Ads and Amazon’s Mechanical...; 2013; Antoun, C., Zhang, C., Conrad, F. G., Schober, M. F.
- Effects of Survey Sponsorship on Internet and Mail Response: Using Address- Based Sampling; 2013; Edwards, M. L.
- Using the iPad as a Prize-Based Incentive to Boost Response Rates: A Case Study at Brigham Young University...; 2013; McClendon, R., Olsen, D.
- Online Panels: Recruitment Based on “Hot Topics” – What are the Consequences?; 2013; Andreasson, M., Martinsson, J.
- Social Network Analysis and Survey Response: How Facebook Data Can Supplement Survey Data; 2013; Sage, A.
- Surveywalls: A Breakthrough for Survey Customers or DIY Run Amok?; 2013; Wells, T., Dean, E., Rao, K., Murphy, J., Roe, D. J.
- Evaluating the Effect of a Non-Monetary Incentive in a Nationally Representative Mixed-Mode Establishment...; 2013; Sengupta, M., Harris-Kojetin, L., Hobbs, M., Greene, A.
- Effective e-incentive for Online Study: Comparing Branded e-Gift Card and Virtual Cash Card; 2013; Jin, T., Duan, S., Lai, J. W., Link, M. W.
- First Contact Strategies for Web Surveys: Is a Phone Call or a Letter the More Effective Introduction...; 2013; Connelly, J., Sjoblom, M., Datta, R., Scholfield Hepburn, P.
- How Do Different Sampling Techniques Perform in a Web-Only Survey? Results From a Comparison of a Random...; 2013; Bilgen, I., Stern, M. J., Wolter, K.
- The Effectiveness of Mailed Invitations for Web Surveys; 2013; Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P., Kaczmirek, L.
- Examining the Feasibility of SMS as a Contact Mode for a College Student Survey; 2013; Crawford, S. D., McClain, C., O'Brien, S., Nelson, T. F.
- Survey Reminder Method Experiment: An Examination of Cost Efficiency and Reminder Mode Salience in the...; 2013; Anderson, M., Rogers, B., CyBulski, K., Hall, J. W., Alderks, C. E., Milazzo-Sayre, L.
- Using Qualitative and Quantitative Testing to Improve Hispanic Response Rates for Online Surveys; 2013; Pens, Y., Gentry, R. J.
- The Use of Email, Text Messages, and Facebook to Increase Response Rates Among Adolescents in a Longitudinal...; 2013; Fleeman, A., Francis, K., Henderson, T., Woodford, M., Jani, M.
- Use of Smart Phones/Text Messaging to Increase Response Rates; 2013; DuBray, P.
- Using Multiple Modes in Follow-Up Contacts in Random-Digit Dialing Surveys; 2013; Chowdhury, P. P.
- Impacts of Unit Nonresponse in a Recontact Study of Youth; 2013; Mendelson, J., Viera Jr., L.
- Utilizing the Web in a Multi-Mode Survey; 2013; Venkataraman, L.
- Internet Response for the Decennial Census – 2012 National Census Test; 2013; Reiser, C.
- Effects of Lotteries on Response Behavior in Online Panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Lotteries and study results in market research online panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Using Web Surveys for Psychology Experiments: A Case Study in New Media Technology for Research; 2013; Peden, B. F., Tiry , A. M.
- Sampling, Channels, and Contact Strategies in Internet Survey; 2013; Macrì, E., Tessitore, C.
- Advancing Research Methods with New Technologies; 2013; Sappleton, N.
- Using mobile devices to access the realities of youth: How identification with society influences political...; 2013; Smith, M.
- Do I Have Your Full Attention?; 2013; Cape, P. J.
- Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study...; 2013; Morgan, A. J., Jorm, A. F., Mackinnon, A. J.
- Challenges for Researchers Investigating Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Intentions of Young Women Living...; 2013; Herbert, D. L., Loxton, D., Bateson, D., Weisberg, E., Lucke, J. C.
- Pros and cons of virtual interviewers – vote in the discussion about surveytainment; 2013; Póltorak, M., Kowalski, J.
- An Assessment of Incentive Versus Survey Length Trade-offs in a Web Survey of Radiologists; 2013; Ziegenfuss, J. Y., Niederhauser, B. D., Kallmes, D., Beebe, T. J.
- The fish model: What factors affect participants while filling in an online questionnaire?; 2013; Mohamed, B., Lorenz, A., Pscheida, D.
- The monetary value of good questionnaire design; 2013; Tress, F.
- Why are you leaving me?? - Personality predictors of answering drop out in an online-study; 2013; Thielsch, M., Nestler, S., Back, M.
- Seducing the respondent – how to optimise invitations in on-site online research?; 2013; Póltorak, M., Kowalski, J.
- E-questionnaire in cross-sectional household surveys; 2013; Karaganis, M.
- Rewards - Money for Nothing?; 2013; Cape, P. J., Martin, P.
- Effects of incentive reduction after a series of higher incentive waves in a probability-based online...; 2013; Struminskaya, B., Kaczmirek, L., Schaurer, I., Bandilla, W.
- Timing of Nonparticipation in an Online Panel: The effect of incentive strategies; 2013; Douhou, S., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Online Research, Game On!; 2013; Puleston, J.
- Examining the Gender Effects of Different Incentive Amounts in a Web Survey; 2013; Boulianne, S. J.
- How Do Lotteries and Study Results Influence Response Behavior in Online Panels?; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Incentives for college student participation in web-based substance use surveys; 2013; Patrick, M. E., Singer, E., Boyd, C. J., Cranford, J. A., McCabe, S. E.
- Increasing Web Survey Response Rates in Innovation Research: An Experimental Study of Static and Dynamic...; 2013; Sauermann, H.; Roach, M.
- The Impact of Academic Sponsorship on Online Survey Dropout Rates; 2012; Allen, P. J., Roberts, L. D.