Web Survey Bibliography
Background: Studies of tobacco use and other health behaviors have reported great challenges in recruiting young adults. Social media is widely used by young adults in the United States and represents a potentially fast, affordable method of recruiting study participants for survey research.
Objective: The present study examined Facebook as a mechanism to reach and survey young adults about tobacco and other substance use.
Methods: Participants were cigarette users, age 18-25 years old, living throughout the United States and recruited through Facebook to complete a survey about tobacco and other substance use. Paid advertising using Facebook’s Ad program over 13 months from 2010 Feb 28 to 2011 Apr 4 targeted by age (18-25), location (United States or California), language (English), and tobacco- and/or marijuana-related keywords. Facebook approved all ads.
Results: The campaign used 20 ads, which generated 28,683,151 impressions, yielding 14,808 clicks (0.7% of targeted Facebook members), at an overall cost of $6,628.24. The average cost per click on an ad was $0.45. The success of individual ads varied widely. There was a rise in both clicks and impressions as the campaign grew. However, the peak for clicks was 3 months before the peak for ad impressions. Of the 69,937,080 accounts for those age 18-25 in the United States, Facebook estimated that 2.8% (n = 1,980,240) were reached through tobacco and marijuana keywords. Our campaign yielded 5237 signed consents (35.4% of clicks), of which 3093 (59%) met criteria, and 1548 (50% of those who met criteria) completed the survey. The final cost per valid completed survey was $4.28. The majority of completed surveys came from whites (69%) and males (72%). The sample averaged 8.9 cigarettes per day (SD 7.5), 3.8 years of smoking (SD 2.9), with a median of 1 lifetime quit attempts; 48% did not intend to quit smoking in the next 6 months.
Conclusions: Despite wide variety in the success of individual ads and potential concerns about sample representativeness, Facebook was a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young-adult smokers to complete a survey about the use of tobacco and other substances. The current findings support Facebook as a viable recruitment option for assessment of health behavior in young adults.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Solicitations & incentives (639)
- Experiments in Obtaining Data Linkage Consent in Web Surveys ; 2013; Sakshaug, J. W., Kreuter, F.
- Should the third reminder be sent? The role of survey response timing on web survey results; 2013; Rao, K., Pennington, J.
- How incentives affect web-based survey response rates of athletic program donors; 2013; Alvarado, G., Callison, C.
- Investigating the Relationship among Prepaid Token Incentives, Response Rates, and Nonresponse Bias...; 2013; Parsons, N. L., Manierre, M. J.
- Web-Based Versus Traditional Paper Questionnaires: A Mixed-Mode Survey With a Nordic Perspective; 2013; Hohwue, L., Lyshol, H., Gissler, M., Hrafn Jonsson, S., Petzold, M., Obel, C.
- Adjusting for bias in a mixed-mode CAWI survey on University students ; 2013; Clerici, R., Giraldo, A.
- The 2012 Confirmit Annual Market Research Software Survey; 2013; Macer, T., Wilson, S.
- Using Mixed-Mode Contacts in Client Surveys: Getting More Bang for Your Buck; 2013; Israel, G. D.
- Feasibility of Using Web to Survey at a Sample of Addresses: a UK ESS experiment; 2013; Villar, A.
- The Effect of Differential Mailing Methodologies on Response Rates: Testing Advanced Notices, Pre-Recorded...; 2013; Pens, Y., Cantave, M. A., Gentry, R. J.
- The Influence of Respondent Incentives on Item Nonresponse and Measurement Error in a Web Survey; 2013; Felderer, B., Kreuter, F., Winter, J.
- Using Motivating Prompts to Increase Responses to Open-ended Questions in Mixed-mode Surveys: Where...; 2013; Israel, G. D.
- Differential Incentives in a Dual Mode Survey of Health Care Providers; 2013; Roff, B., Barrett, K.
- The Effect of Attempting to Recruit Respondents to a Web-Based Diary on Overall Response Rate; 2013; Cantave, M. A. Gentry, R. J.
- Comparisons of Online Recruitment Strategies: Craigslist, Facebook, Google Ads and Amazon’s Mechanical...; 2013; Antoun, C., Zhang, C., Conrad, F. G., Schober, M. F.
- Effects of Survey Sponsorship on Internet and Mail Response: Using Address- Based Sampling; 2013; Edwards, M. L.
- Using the iPad as a Prize-Based Incentive to Boost Response Rates: A Case Study at Brigham Young University...; 2013; McClendon, R., Olsen, D.
- Online Panels: Recruitment Based on “Hot Topics” – What are the Consequences?; 2013; Andreasson, M., Martinsson, J.
- Social Network Analysis and Survey Response: How Facebook Data Can Supplement Survey Data; 2013; Sage, A.
- Surveywalls: A Breakthrough for Survey Customers or DIY Run Amok?; 2013; Wells, T., Dean, E., Rao, K., Murphy, J., Roe, D. J.
- Evaluating the Effect of a Non-Monetary Incentive in a Nationally Representative Mixed-Mode Establishment...; 2013; Sengupta, M., Harris-Kojetin, L., Hobbs, M., Greene, A.
- Effective e-incentive for Online Study: Comparing Branded e-Gift Card and Virtual Cash Card; 2013; Jin, T., Duan, S., Lai, J. W., Link, M. W.
- First Contact Strategies for Web Surveys: Is a Phone Call or a Letter the More Effective Introduction...; 2013; Connelly, J., Sjoblom, M., Datta, R., Scholfield Hepburn, P.
- How Do Different Sampling Techniques Perform in a Web-Only Survey? Results From a Comparison of a Random...; 2013; Bilgen, I., Stern, M. J., Wolter, K.
- The Effectiveness of Mailed Invitations for Web Surveys; 2013; Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P., Kaczmirek, L.
- Examining the Feasibility of SMS as a Contact Mode for a College Student Survey; 2013; Crawford, S. D., McClain, C., O'Brien, S., Nelson, T. F.
- Survey Reminder Method Experiment: An Examination of Cost Efficiency and Reminder Mode Salience in the...; 2013; Anderson, M., Rogers, B., CyBulski, K., Hall, J. W., Alderks, C. E., Milazzo-Sayre, L.
- Using Qualitative and Quantitative Testing to Improve Hispanic Response Rates for Online Surveys; 2013; Pens, Y., Gentry, R. J.
- The Use of Email, Text Messages, and Facebook to Increase Response Rates Among Adolescents in a Longitudinal...; 2013; Fleeman, A., Francis, K., Henderson, T., Woodford, M., Jani, M.
- Use of Smart Phones/Text Messaging to Increase Response Rates; 2013; DuBray, P.
- Using Multiple Modes in Follow-Up Contacts in Random-Digit Dialing Surveys; 2013; Chowdhury, P. P.
- Impacts of Unit Nonresponse in a Recontact Study of Youth; 2013; Mendelson, J., Viera Jr., L.
- Utilizing the Web in a Multi-Mode Survey; 2013; Venkataraman, L.
- Internet Response for the Decennial Census – 2012 National Census Test; 2013; Reiser, C.
- Effects of Lotteries on Response Behavior in Online Panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Lotteries and study results in market research online panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Using Web Surveys for Psychology Experiments: A Case Study in New Media Technology for Research; 2013; Peden, B. F., Tiry , A. M.
- Sampling, Channels, and Contact Strategies in Internet Survey; 2013; Macrì, E., Tessitore, C.
- Advancing Research Methods with New Technologies; 2013; Sappleton, N.
- Using mobile devices to access the realities of youth: How identification with society influences political...; 2013; Smith, M.
- Do I Have Your Full Attention?; 2013; Cape, P. J.
- Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study...; 2013; Morgan, A. J., Jorm, A. F., Mackinnon, A. J.
- Challenges for Researchers Investigating Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Intentions of Young Women Living...; 2013; Herbert, D. L., Loxton, D., Bateson, D., Weisberg, E., Lucke, J. C.
- Pros and cons of virtual interviewers – vote in the discussion about surveytainment; 2013; Póltorak, M., Kowalski, J.
- An Assessment of Incentive Versus Survey Length Trade-offs in a Web Survey of Radiologists; 2013; Ziegenfuss, J. Y., Niederhauser, B. D., Kallmes, D., Beebe, T. J.
- The fish model: What factors affect participants while filling in an online questionnaire?; 2013; Mohamed, B., Lorenz, A., Pscheida, D.
- The monetary value of good questionnaire design; 2013; Tress, F.
- Why are you leaving me?? - Personality predictors of answering drop out in an online-study; 2013; Thielsch, M., Nestler, S., Back, M.
- Seducing the respondent – how to optimise invitations in on-site online research?; 2013; Póltorak, M., Kowalski, J.
- E-questionnaire in cross-sectional household surveys; 2013; Karaganis, M.