Web Survey Bibliography
Background: Studies of tobacco use and other health behaviors have reported great challenges in recruiting young adults. Social media is widely used by young adults in the United States and represents a potentially fast, affordable method of recruiting study participants for survey research.
Objective: The present study examined Facebook as a mechanism to reach and survey young adults about tobacco and other substance use.
Methods: Participants were cigarette users, age 18-25 years old, living throughout the United States and recruited through Facebook to complete a survey about tobacco and other substance use. Paid advertising using Facebook’s Ad program over 13 months from 2010 Feb 28 to 2011 Apr 4 targeted by age (18-25), location (United States or California), language (English), and tobacco- and/or marijuana-related keywords. Facebook approved all ads.
Results: The campaign used 20 ads, which generated 28,683,151 impressions, yielding 14,808 clicks (0.7% of targeted Facebook members), at an overall cost of $6,628.24. The average cost per click on an ad was $0.45. The success of individual ads varied widely. There was a rise in both clicks and impressions as the campaign grew. However, the peak for clicks was 3 months before the peak for ad impressions. Of the 69,937,080 accounts for those age 18-25 in the United States, Facebook estimated that 2.8% (n = 1,980,240) were reached through tobacco and marijuana keywords. Our campaign yielded 5237 signed consents (35.4% of clicks), of which 3093 (59%) met criteria, and 1548 (50% of those who met criteria) completed the survey. The final cost per valid completed survey was $4.28. The majority of completed surveys came from whites (69%) and males (72%). The sample averaged 8.9 cigarettes per day (SD 7.5), 3.8 years of smoking (SD 2.9), with a median of 1 lifetime quit attempts; 48% did not intend to quit smoking in the next 6 months.
Conclusions: Despite wide variety in the success of individual ads and potential concerns about sample representativeness, Facebook was a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young-adult smokers to complete a survey about the use of tobacco and other substances. The current findings support Facebook as a viable recruitment option for assessment of health behavior in young adults.
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Web Survey Bibliography (989)
- Using Web Surveys for Psychology Experiments: A Case Study in New Media Technology for Research; 2013; Peden, B. F., Tiry , A. M.
- The ONS Beyond 2011 Programme & possible implications for social surveys; 2013; Morris, L.
- Survey Research; 2013; Abbott, M. L., McKinney, J.
- The effect of short formative diagnostic web quizzes with minimal feedback; 2013; Baelter, O., Enstroem, E., Klingenberg, B.
- Research in the Mobile Mindset: Exploring the unexplored in the mobile research space; 2012; Willems, A., Veris, E., Verhaeghe, A.
- WebSM Study: Survey software features overview ; 2012; Vehovar, V.; Cehovin, G.; Kavcic, L.; Lenar, J.
- Measuring Work Activities and Skill Requirements of Occupations: Experiences from a European Pilot Study...; 2012; Tijdens, K., De Ruijter, E., De Ruijter, J.
- Reaching and Hearing the Invisible: Organizational Research on Invisible Stigmatized Groups via Web...; 2012; Trau, R. N. C., Haertel, C. E. J., Haertel, G. F.
- What Survey Modes are Most Effective in Eliciting Self-Reports of Criminal or Delinquent Behavior?; 2012; Kleck, G., Roberts, K.
- Developing an Online GIS-based Survey Instrument to Elicit Perceived Neighborhood Information for Environmental...; 2012; Carr, J., Johnson, I., Keene, R., Landry, P., Gradeck, R., Lucht, J., Beach, S., Clougherty, J.
- Assessing Cross-National Equivalence of Measures of Xenophobia: Evidence from Probing in Web Surveys; 2012; Behr, D., Braun, M., Kaczmirek, L.
- Studying Migrants with the Help of the Internet: Methods from Psychology; 2012; Reips, U. -D., Buffardi, L.
- Adaptive web sampling in ecology; 2012; Thompson, S. K.
- Online Data Collection in the Agro-Food Sector; 2012; Biffignandi, S., Artaz, R.
- Reaching Under/Never Screened Populations Using an Online Survey; 2012; Filsinger, B., Gesink, D., Mihic, A., Kreiger, N.
- Psychometric properties of an internet administered version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability...; 2012; Vesteinsdottir, V., Reips, U. -D., Joinson, A. N., Porsdottir, F.
- Research design for studying online communities with web surveys; 2012; Petrovcic, A., Petric, G., Lozar Manfreda, K.
- Case study: Respondent perspective on survey response; 2012; Jarrett, C.
- Presidential Elections in Iceland 2012 – Did online panel surveys give false hope to new candidates...; 2012; Jonsdottir, G. A., Dofradottir, A. G., Bjornsdottir, A. E.
- Complex cross validation of new and known data in online questionnaires, Experiences from the ESS surveys...; 2012; Stax, H.-P.
- Measuring work activities and skill requirements of occupations: Experiences from a European pilot study...; 2012; Tijdens, K., De Ruijter, E., De Ruijter, J.
- Internet Mobility Survey Sampling Biases in Measuring Frequency of Use of Transport Modes ; 2012; Diana, M.
- Transferring Telephone-Based National Household Travel Survey to the Internet ; 2012; Son, S., Khattak, A., Wang, X., Chen, J.-Y.
- Qualitatively Speaking: Mobile qualitative finally hits its stride; 2012; Bryson, J.
- Conducting Research on the Internet: Medical Record Data Integration with Patient-Reported Outcomes; 2012; Cascade, E., Marr, P., Winslow, M., Burgess, A., Nixon, M.
- Clinicians’ Perspectives on a Web-Based System for Routine Outcome Monitoring in Old-Age Psychiatry...; 2012; Veerbeek, M. A., Voshaar, R. C. O., Pot, A. M.
- Using Collaborative Web Technology to Construct the Health Information National Trends Survey; 2012; Moser, R. P., Beckjord, E. B., Finney Rutten, L. J., Blake, K., Hesse, B. W.
- Developing a New Mixed Mode Methodology for a Provincial Park Camper Survey in British Columbia; 2012; Dyck, B. W., Dearden, P., Rollins, R.
- A Shot in the Dark: Measurement Influence on Likelihood to Vaccination; 2012; Higgins, W. B., Thomas, R. K.
- Making a Match: Exploring the Impact of Mode Preference on Measurement; 2012; Kasabian, A., Olson, K., Smyth, J.
- Demographic Question Placement and Its Effect on Item Response Rates and Means of a Veterans Health...; 2012; Teclaw, R., Price, M.Osatuke, K.
- Using Online Panels for National Surveys of Low Incidence Populations: Findings from the CDC Influenza...; 2012; Boyle, J., Ball, S., Ding, H., Srinath, K. P., Euler, G.
- Sleep Diary Feasibility and Mode Study: Paper Vs. Electronic; 2012; Brown, J.
- Survey Mode Preference among Enrollees in the World Trade Center Health Registry; 2012; Yu, S., Brackbill, R., Walker, D., Turner, L., Farfel, M., Stellman, S., Miller, S., Li, J.
- Reducing Overreporting Voter Turnout in Seven European Countries–Results from a Survey Experiment...; 2012; Schwarzer, S., Kritzinger, S., Zeglovits, E.
- Drop-Off Point for Undergraduate Students on a Web-based Alcohol and Tobacco Use Questionnaire; 2012; Mitra, A.
- An Examination of the 2010 Census Be Counted Program and Its Effects on Census Coverage and Duplication...; 2012; Jackson, G. I., Wechter, K. M.
- The Detection and Effects of Data From Potentially Ineligible Participants in Online Survey Research...; 2012; Grey, J.
- Internet Mobility Survey Sampling Biases in Measuring Frequency of Use of Different Transport Modes; 2012; Diana, M.
- Online Versus Phone Surveys: Comparison of Results for Bicycling Survey; 2012; Xing, Y., Handy, S. L.
- Survey non-response in an internet-mediated, longitudinal autism research study; 2012; Cohen, C., Lehmann, H., G., Law, P.Kalb, L. G.
- Information-Communication Technology Support for Online Surveys: A Need for Integration; 2012; Vehovar, V., Slavec, A., Berzelak, N., Lozar Manfreda, K.
- Continuous large-scale volunteer web-surveys: The experience of Lohnspiegel and WageIndicator; 2012; Oez, F.
- FamilyVote – Conducting online surveys with children and families; 2012; Geissler, H., Peeters, H.
- The Impact of Mobilization Media on Off-Line and Online Participation: Are Mobilization Effects Medium...; 2012; Vissers, S., Hooghe, M., Stolle, D., Maheo, V.-A.
- Succinct Survey Measures of Web-Use Skills; 2012; Hargittai, E., Hsieh, Y. P.
- Active-Q: Validation of the Web-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire Using Doubly Labeled Water; 2012; Bonn, S. E., Trolle-Lagerros, Y., Christensen, S. E., Moeller, E., Wright, A., Sjoelander, A., Baelter...
- Validation of an online questionnaire measure of the relative reinforcing value of food; 2012; Reslan, S., Saules, K. K., Greenwald, M. K.
- Measuring risk online--feasibility of using FINDRISC in an online workplace survey; 2012; Gyberg, V., Hasson, D., Tuomilehto, J., Rydén, L.
- Monitoring Validated Quality of Life Outcomes After Prostatectomy: Initial Description of Novel Online...; 2012; Sebrow, D., Lavery, H. J., Brajtbord, J. S., Hobbs, A., W., Levinson, A. W.; Samadi, D. B.