Web Survey Bibliography
Background: Studies of tobacco use and other health behaviors have reported great challenges in recruiting young adults. Social media is widely used by young adults in the United States and represents a potentially fast, affordable method of recruiting study participants for survey research.
Objective: The present study examined Facebook as a mechanism to reach and survey young adults about tobacco and other substance use.
Methods: Participants were cigarette users, age 18-25 years old, living throughout the United States and recruited through Facebook to complete a survey about tobacco and other substance use. Paid advertising using Facebook’s Ad program over 13 months from 2010 Feb 28 to 2011 Apr 4 targeted by age (18-25), location (United States or California), language (English), and tobacco- and/or marijuana-related keywords. Facebook approved all ads.
Results: The campaign used 20 ads, which generated 28,683,151 impressions, yielding 14,808 clicks (0.7% of targeted Facebook members), at an overall cost of $6,628.24. The average cost per click on an ad was $0.45. The success of individual ads varied widely. There was a rise in both clicks and impressions as the campaign grew. However, the peak for clicks was 3 months before the peak for ad impressions. Of the 69,937,080 accounts for those age 18-25 in the United States, Facebook estimated that 2.8% (n = 1,980,240) were reached through tobacco and marijuana keywords. Our campaign yielded 5237 signed consents (35.4% of clicks), of which 3093 (59%) met criteria, and 1548 (50% of those who met criteria) completed the survey. The final cost per valid completed survey was $4.28. The majority of completed surveys came from whites (69%) and males (72%). The sample averaged 8.9 cigarettes per day (SD 7.5), 3.8 years of smoking (SD 2.9), with a median of 1 lifetime quit attempts; 48% did not intend to quit smoking in the next 6 months.
Conclusions: Despite wide variety in the success of individual ads and potential concerns about sample representativeness, Facebook was a useful, cost-effective recruitment source for young-adult smokers to complete a survey about the use of tobacco and other substances. The current findings support Facebook as a viable recruitment option for assessment of health behavior in young adults.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Journal of Medical Internet Research (45)
- Online Survey on Twitter: A Urological Experience; 2013; Dal Moro, F.
- Telephone Versus Internet Administration of Self-Report Measures of Social Anxiety, Depressive Symptoms...; 2013; Hedman, E., Ljótsson, B., Blom, K., El Alaoui, S., Kraepelien, M., Rück, C., Andersson, G., Svanborg...
- Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity of Brazilian Schoolchildren: Usability Testing of a Web-Based...; 2013; da Costa, F. F., Pacheco Schmoelz, C., Fernandes Davies, V., Di Pietro, P. F., Kupek, E., de Assis,...
- Web-Based Versus Traditional Paper Questionnaires: A Mixed-Mode Survey With a Nordic Perspective; 2013; Hohwue, L., Lyshol, H., Gissler, M., Hrafn Jonsson, S., Petzold, M., Obel, C.
- Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study...; 2013; Morgan, A. J., Jorm, A. F., Mackinnon, A. J.
- Challenges for Researchers Investigating Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Intentions of Young Women Living...; 2013; Herbert, D. L., Loxton, D., Bateson, D., Weisberg, E., Lucke, J. C.
- An Assessment of Incentive Versus Survey Length Trade-offs in a Web Survey of Radiologists; 2013; Ziegenfuss, J. Y., Niederhauser, B. D., Kallmes, D., Beebe, T. J.
- How Should Debriefing Be Undertaken in Web-Based Studies? Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial...; 2012; McCambridge, J., Kypri, K., Wilson, A.
- Use of Web 2.0 to Recruit Australian Gay Men to an Online HIV/AIDS Survey; 2012; Theriault, N., Bi, P., Hiller, J. E., Nor, M.
- Conducting Research on the Internet: Medical Record Data Integration with Patient-Reported Outcomes; 2012; Cascade, E., Marr, P., Winslow, M., Burgess, A., Nixon, M.
- Clinicians’ Perspectives on a Web-Based System for Routine Outcome Monitoring in Old-Age Psychiatry...; 2012; Veerbeek, M. A., Voshaar, R. C. O., Pot, A. M.
- Active-Q: Validation of the Web-Based Physical Activity Questionnaire Using Doubly Labeled Water; 2012; Bonn, S. E., Trolle-Lagerros, Y., Christensen, S. E., Moeller, E., Wright, A., Sjoelander, A., Baelter...
- Validation of an Informant-Reported Web-Based Data Collection to Assess Dementia Symptoms; 2012; Rockwood, K., Zeng, A., Leibman, C., Mucha, L., Mitnitski, A.
- Web-Based Recruiting for Health Research Using a Social Networking Site: An Exploratory Study; 2012; Fenner, Y., Garland, P., Moore, E. E., Jayasinghe, Y., Fletcher, A., Tabrizi, S. N., Gunasekaran, B.,...
- Broad Reach and Targeted Recruitment Using Facebook for an Online Survey of Young Adult Substance Use...; 2012; Ramo, D. E., Prochaska, J. J.
- Impact of Length or Relevance of Questionnaires on Attrition in Online Trials: Randomized Controlled...; 2011; McCambridge, J., Kalaitzaki, E., White, I. R., Khadjesari, Z., Murray, E., Linke, S., Thompson, S. G...
- Methodological Issues in Internet-Mediated Research: A Randomized Comparison of Internet Versus Mailed...; 2011; Whitehead, L.
- Using web-based and paper-based questionnaires for collecting data on fertility issues among female...; 2011; Van Den Berg, M. H., Overbeek, A., van der Pal, H. J. H., Versluys, B. A., , Van Leeuwe, F. E. Lambalk...
- Development of a Web-Based Survey for Monitoring Daily Health and its Application in an Epidemiological...; 2011; Sugiura, H., Ohkusa, Y., Akahane, M., Sano, T., Okabe, N., Imamura, T.
- Bias in Online Recruitment and Retention of Racial and Ethnic Minority Men Who Have Sex With Men; 2011; Amsden, M., Coggia, T., DiClemente, R. J., Khosropour, C. M., Luisi, N., Sullivan, P. S., Wingood, G...
- A Comparison of Psychometric Properties Between Internet and Paper Versions of Two Depression Instruments...; 2010; Andersson, G., Engstroem, I., Hollaendare, F.
- The Influence of Response Mode on Study Results: Offering Cigarette Smokers a Choice of Postal or Online...; 2010; Callas, P. W., Solomon, L. J., Hughes, J. R., Livingston, A. E.
- The Touro 12-Step: A Systematic Guide to Optimizing Survey Research with Online Discussion Boards; 2010; Ip, E. J., Barnett, M. J., Tenerowicz, M. J., Perry, P. J.
- Effects of a Financial Incentive on Health Researchers’ Response to an Online Survey: a Randomized...; 2010; Wilson, P. M., Petticrew, M., Calnan, M., Nazareth, I.
- Response Audit of an Internet Survey of Health Care Providers and Administrators: Implications for Determination...; 2008; Dobrow, M. J., Orchard, M. C., Golden, B.; Holowaty, E., Paszat, L., Brown, A. D., Sullivan, T.
- No Increase in Response Rate by Adding a Web Response Option to a Postal Population Survey: A Randomized...; 2007; Brøgger, J., Nystad, W., Cappelen, I., Bakke, P.
- Use of the Internet to communicate with health care providers in the United States: Estimates from the...; 2007; Beckjord, E. B., Squiers, L., Arora, N. K., Volckmann, L., Moser, R. P., Hesse, B. W., Finney Rutten...
- Response rate and completeness of questionnaires: A randomized study of internet versus Paper-and-Pencil...; 2007; Holm- Christensen, K., Hjollund, H. N., , ; Basnov, M.; Kongsved, S.M.
- Following Up Nonrespondents to an Online Weight Management Intervention: Randomized Trial Comparing...; 2007; Couper, M. P., Peytchev, A.; Strecher, V., Rothert, K., Anderson, K. J.
- Psychological Assessment via the Internet: A Reliability and Validity Study of Online (vs Paper-and-...; 2007; Vallejo, M. A., Jordán, C. M., Díaz, M. I., Comeche, M. I., Ortega, J.
- Formative Evaluation and Three-Month Follow-Up of an Online Personalized Assessment Feedback Intervention...; 2006; Cunningham, J. A., Humphreys, K., Kypri, K., van Mierlo, T.
- Computers and the Internet: Tools for Youth Empowerment; 2005; Valaitis, R. K.
- Information Needs and Visitors' Experience of an Internet Expert Forum on Infertility; 2005; Himmel, W., Meyer, J., Kochen, M. M., Michelmann, H.-W.
- How New Subscribers Use Cancer-Related Online Mailing Lists; 2005; Rimer, B. K., Lyons, E. J., Ribisl, K. M., Bowling, J. M., Golin, C. E., Forlenza, M. J., Meier, A.
- Use of Internet Audience Measurement Data to Gauge Market Share for Online Health Information Services...; 2005; Wood, F. B., Benson, D., LaCroix, E.-M., Siegel, E. R., Fariss, S.
- Challenges of Internet Recruitment: A Case Study with Disappointing Results; 2005; Koo, M., Skinner, H.
- Swiss Community Pharmacies' on the Web and Pharmacists' Experiences with E-commerce: Longitudinal study...; 2004; Zehnder, S., Bruppacher, R., Ruppanner, H., Hersberger, K. E.
- Improving the Quality of Web Surveys: The Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES...; 2004; Eysenbach, G.
- Will Web Surveys Ever Become Part of Mainstream Research?; 2004; Schonlau, M.
- Internet Versus Mailed Questionnaires: A Randomized Comparison (2); 2004; Leece, P., Bhandari, M., Swiontkowski, M., Schemitsch, E., Tornetta, P., Devereaux, P. J., Guyatt, G...
- Internet Versus Mailed Questionnaires: A Randomized Comparison; 2004; Ritter, P., Lorig, K., Laurent, D., Matthews, K.
- Feasibility of Collecting Diary Data From Asthma Patients Through Mobile Phones and SMS (Short Message...; 2004; Anhoej, J., Moeldrup, C.
- Online consumer surveys as a methodology for assessing the quality of the United States health care...; 2004; Bethell, C., Fiorillo, J., Lansky, D., Hendryx, M., Knickman, J.
- Survey of Doctors' Experience of Patients Using the Internet; 2002; Potts, H. W. W., Wyatt, J. C., Pagerey, P.D.
- Using the Internet for surveys and health research; 2002; Eysenbach, G., Wyatt, J. C.