Web Survey Bibliography
Internet surveys are becoming a major mode of data collection, but are not yet fully fit to replace more classical modes of data collection like telephone surveys. Mixed-mode surveys are offered as a promising solution. However, there is considerable evidence that when different modes are used different results are obtained. Data from different modes may be different because the modes themselves lead to different response processes, or because different questions are employed in different modes (either by tradition or due to mode specific optimization of the questionnaire). For instance, because of the memory problems associated with verbal communication, telephone designers often use unfolding, or polar (end) labeling of response categories. The goal of this research is to identify means to combine telephone and web survey results effectively, by choosing formats for asking questions that are less affected by mode, than are others. In a series of experiments we test multiple formats for asking questions (e.g. unfolding opinion questions in multiple steps vs. asking a complete question in one-step) within each of the two survey modes. These experiments compare the effects of different question formats across and within data collection modes. Data were collected using the respondents to the PPSM panel, who were randomly assigned to an Internet and a telephone panel. Within each panel the same series of split ballot experiments on question format were conducted. This design enables us to disentangle question format effects from ‘pure’ mode (web vs telephone) effects.
Web Survey Bibliography - Hox, J. (27)
- Random versus Systematic Error in a Mixed Mode Online-Telephone Survey; 2013; Hox, J., Scherpenzeel, A., Boeve, A., Boeve, A., de Leeuw, E. D.
- Estimating Measurement Effects of Survey Modes From Between and Within Subject Designs; 2013; Klausch, L. T., Hox, J., Schouten, B.
- Does one really know?: Avoiding noninformative answers in a reliable way.; 2013; de Leeuw, E. D., Boevee, A., Hox, J.
- Assessing the Mode-dependency of Survey Response and Non-response Bias; 2012; Klausch, L. T., Hox, J., Schouten, B.
- Question or Mode Effects in Mixed-Mode surveys: A Cross-cultural study in the Netherlands, Germany,...; 2012; de Leeuw, E. D., Nicolaas, G., Campanelli, P., Hox, J.
- Assessing Measurement Equivalence and Bias of Questions in Mixed-mode Surveys Under Controlled Sample...; 2012; Klausch, L. T., Hox, J., Schouten, B.
- The Representativity of Web Surveys of the General Population compared to Traditional Modes and Mixed...; 2012; Klausch, L. T., Schouten, B., Hox, J.
- Matrix vs. Single Question Formats in Web Surveys: Results from a large scale experiment; 2012; Klausch, L. T., de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., de Jongh, A., Roberts , A.
- Online-Telephone Mixed-Mode Surveys Question Wording Experiments in The Netherlands and Germany; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- Flexibility of Web Surveys: Probing 'do-not-know' over the Phone and on the Web; 2011; Hox, J., de Leeuw, E. D.
- Mode Effect or Question Wording? Measurement Error in Mixed Mode Surveys; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Surveying the General Population: Coverage bias in European Web Surveys; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Mohorko, A.
- Measurement Error in Mixed Mode Surveys: Mode or Question Format?; 2011; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- Internet Surveys as Part of a Mixed-Mode Design; 2010; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- Mode Effect or Question Wording? Source of Measurement Error in Mixed Mode Surveys; 2010; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Scherpenzeel, A., Stam, S., Zandvliet, R.
- Emulating Interviewers in an Online Survey: Experimental Manipulation of ‘Do-Not-Know’ Over...; 2010; Hox, J.
- Donations to charity as incentives in online panels; 2009; Goeritz, A.; Hox, J.
- Missing data; 2008; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- International Handbook of Survey Methodology; 2008; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Dillman, D. A.
- Mixed-mode Surveys: When and Why; 2008; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Dillman, D. A.
- Self-Administered Questionnaires: Mail Survey and Other Applications; 2008; de Leeuw, E. D. Hox, J.
- The influence of advance letters on response in telephone surveys; 2007; de Leeuw, E. D., Callegaro, M., Hox, J., Korendijk, E., Lensvelt-Mulders, G. J.
- Mixed Mode Data Collection Strategies in Surveys; 2006; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J.
- Prevention and Treatment of Item Nonresponse; 2003; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Huisman, M.
- From theoretical concepts to survey question; 1997; Hox, J.
- Overcoming the Problems of Special Interviews on Sensitive Topics: Computer Assisted Self-Interviwing...; 1997; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Kef, S., van Hattum, M. J. C.
- The effect of computer-assisted interviewing on data quality: A review.; 1995; de Leeuw, E. D., Hox, J., Snijkers, G.