Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: Asking sensitive questions in online surveys is a difficult task as respondents might not always tell the truth and answer in a socially desirable manner. As a consequence, the prevalence of sensitive behaviors is likely to be underestimated and correlations between individual characteristics and sensitive behaviors might be biased if subgroups of the surveyed population differ in their probability to answer truthfully. The Randomized Response Technique (RRT; Warner 1965), a method proposed to face this challenge, achieved mixed results so far in providing more valid estimates than direct questioning. A related approach called the Crosswise Model (CM; Yu, Tian and Tang 2008) seems more promising. However, empirical evidence on the performance of these methods is still sparse and inconclusive, especially in the case of online surveys.
Methods & Data: In the context of an online survey on plagiarism and cheating on exams among students of two Swiss universities (N = 6494), we tested different implementations of the RRT and the CM and compared them to direct questioning using a randomized experimental design. To evaluate the different methods, we analyzed differences in prevalence estimates, breakoff rates and respondents’ impression of the techniques.
Results: Results reveal a poor performance of the RRT, which failed to elicit higher prevalence estimates than direct questioning. Using the CM, however, significantly higher prevalence estimates could be achieved.
Added Value: Our study provides a thorough experimental comparison of the RRT and the CM, which to date is missing in the literature. Furthermore, we present different implementations of the RRT and the CM, specifically tailored for use in online surveys. Implications of our findings for the future use of sensitive questions techniques such as the RRT and the CM are discussed.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography (6374)
- Rewards - Money for Nothing?; 2013; Cape, P. J., Martin, P.
- Effects of incentive reduction after a series of higher incentive waves in a probability-based online...; 2013; Struminskaya, B., Kaczmirek, L., Schaurer, I., Bandilla, W.
- Timing of Nonparticipation in an Online Panel: The effect of incentive strategies; 2013; Douhou, S., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Mixed-mode including web: Recent developments at Statistics Netherlands; 2013; Luiten, A., Schouten, B.
- Web coverage in the UK and its potential impact on general population web surveys; 2013; Callegaro, M.
- Surveys on Mobile Devices: Opportunities and Challenges; 2013; Couper, M. P.
- Measurement effects in mixed-mode panel surveys; 2013; Lugtig, P. J.
- Life history calendars - a viable method for web-based data collection?; 2013; Glasner, T., van der Vaart, W.
- Measurement issues in web surveys: An overview of opportunities and challenges; 2013; Calderwood, L.
- Experiences from a probability-based Internet panel: Sample, recruitment and participation; 2013; Scherpenzeel, A.
- Participation and engagement in web surveys of the general population: An overview of challenges and...; 2013; Roberts, C.
- Using Web Survey Panels to Estimate Population Characteristics: A Comparison of Alternative Approaches...; 2013; Rivers, D.
- Online Research, Game On!; 2013; Puleston, J.
- The ONS Beyond 2011 Programme & possible implications for social surveys; 2013; Morris, L.
- Issues of Coverage and Sampling in Web Surveys for the General Population: An Overview; 2013; Lynn, P.
- Use of a Social Networking Web Site for Recruiting Canadian Youth for Medical Research; 2013; Chu, J. L., Snider, C. E.
- Comparison of web-based versus paper-and-pencil administration of a humor survey; 2013; Wang, C.-C., Cheng, C.-L.;, Liu, K.-S., Cheng, Y.-Y.
- The Design of Grids in Web Surveys; 2013; Couper, M. P., Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Zhang, C.
- The smartphone in survey research: experiments for time use data; 2013; Fernee, H., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Survey Research; 2013; Abbott, M. L., McKinney, J.
- Understanding and Applying Research Design; 2013; Abbott, M. L., McKinney, J.
- Large-Scale Analysis and Testing; 2013; Cao, M., Zhang, Q.
- The Science of Web Surveys; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- How to create online questionnaires: A beginner's guide to survey design for businesses and students...; 2013; Lipscomb, L.
- True experimental data collection on the Internet; 2013; Reips, U. -D., Krantz, J. H.
- Virtual Research Methods; 2013; Hine, C.
- Askito: An open source Web questionnaire tool; 2013; Reips, U. -D., Heilmann, T.
- Informed Consent for Web Paradata Use; 2013; Couper, M. P., Singer, E.
- Measurement invariance and quality of composite scores in a face-to-face and a web survey; 2013; Revilla, M.
- Exploring Response Differences between Face-to-Face and Web Surveys: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis...; 2013; Bennink, M., Moors, G., Gelissen, J.
- 'Ready to complete the survey on Facebook': Web 2.0 as a research tool in business studies; 2013; Gregori, A., Baltar, F.
- Surveying “difficult-to-sample” backpackers through Facebook? Employing a mixed-mode dual...; 2013; Morris Paris, C.
- The Use of Mixed Methods in Organizational Communication Research; 2013; Salem, P. J.
- The Use of E-Questionnaires in Organizational Surveys; 2013; Brender-Ilan, Y., Vinitzky, G.
- Online Instruments, Data Collection, and Electronic Measurements: Organizational Advancements; 2013; Bocarnea, M. C., Reynolds, R. A., Baker, J. D.
- Convenient yet not a convenience sample: Jury pools as experimental subject pools; 2013; Murray, G. R., Rugeley, C. R., Mitchell, D.-G., Mondak, J. J.
- The equivalence of Internet versus paper-based surveys in IT/IS adoption research in collectivistic...; 2013; Fang, J., Wen, C., Prybutok, V.
- Examining the Gender Effects of Different Incentive Amounts in a Web Survey; 2013; Boulianne, S. J.
- Online Survey Software; 2013; Baker, J. D.
- How Do Lotteries and Study Results Influence Response Behavior in Online Panels?; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Mode Effects in Free-list Elicitation: Comparing Oral, Written, and Web-based Data Collection; 2013; Gravlee, C. C., Bernard, H. R., R., Jacobsohn, A., R.Maxwell, C. R.
- Incentives for college student participation in web-based substance use surveys; 2013; Patrick, M. E., Singer, E., Boyd, C. J., Cranford, J. A., McCabe, S. E.
- The effect of short formative diagnostic web quizzes with minimal feedback; 2013; Baelter, O., Enstroem, E., Klingenberg, B.
- Increasing Web Survey Response Rates in Innovation Research: An Experimental Study of Static and Dynamic...; 2013; Sauermann, H.; Roach, M.
- Sample composition discrepancies in different stages of a probability-based online panel; 2013; Bosnjak, M., Haas, I., Galesic, M., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P.
- Survey of Cloud Computing; 2013; Furht, B.
- A comparison of data quality and practicality of online versus postal questionnaires in a sample of...; 2013; King, M. T., Butow, P., Olver, I., Smith, A. B.
- Up Means Good: The Impact of Screen Position on Evaluative Ratings in Web Surveys.; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- Worldwide online research spending; 2012
- What we can learn from unintentional mobile respondents; 2012; Peterson, G.