Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance and Research Question:
It is well-documented that online surveys elicit higher reports of socially undesirable behavior than interviewer-administered surveys. However, there are possible exceptions, where the form of the question may inhibit the revelation of prejudicial attitudes. In research exploring race of interviewer effects, Krysan and Couper (2003) found some instances where white respondents (for example) gave more negative responses to interviewers than to computerized instruments. In qualitative debriefings, some respondents noted that talking to an interviewer gave them an opportunity to explain their choice of responses; in the CASI condition (as on the Web; see Krysan and Couper, 2005), they could only pick one of the response options, without the opportunity to justify their choice. We called this the “I’m not a racist, but…” phenomenon. An online experiment was designed to explore the hypothesis that, when given an opportunity to explain or clarify their answers, respondents will give more prejudicial responses.
Methods and Data:
Two experiments were embedded in the LISS online probability-based panel in the Netherlands. In both cases a set of 9 items on attitudes toward immigrants was asked. In the first study, conducted in August 2009 (n=4639), a random half received an open-ended question on a separate page following each closed question. In the second study, conducted in December 2010 (n=5328), for a random half of respondents, an optional open-ended comment appeared below each closed-ended question on the same page.
The results provide support for the hypothesis. In both cases, respondents given the open question gave significantly more prejudiced responses (F[1, 4352]=25.6, p<.001 for Exp. 1 and F[1, 5326]=7.1, p=0.008 for Exp. 2) than those getting only the closed-ended question. However, contrary to expectation, the effect was larger in experiment 1 than 2. We explore this finding in greater detail, examining both responses to individual items and those who made use of the text box to offer comments.
This study suggests value in giving respondents the opportunity to voice their opinions in their own words, rather than just requiring them to agree or disagree with one of the response options.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - Social research (770)
- Optimal Resource Allocation in Adaptive Survey Designs; 2013; Calinescu, M.
- Does website‐based information add any value in counseling mothers expecting a baby with severe...; 2013; Engels, A. C. et al.
- Middle School Sexual Harassment, Violence and Social Networks; 2013; Mumford, E. A. et al.
- Flexible insulin dosing improves health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL): a time trade-off survey; 2013; Evans, M. et al.
- Customer satisfaction in Web 2.0 and information technology development; 2013; Sharma, G., Baoku, L.
- To preserve or not to preserve; 2013; Mersereau, J. E. et al.
- Developing and completing a library mobile technology survey to create a user-centered mobile presence...; 2013; A., Bonadie-Joseph, I., Cain, J.Becker, D. A.
- Research staff and public engagement: a UK study; 2013; Davies, S.
- Foreign workers in Saudi Arabia: a field study of role ambiguity, identification, information-seeking...; 2013; Showail, S. J., McLean Parks, J., Smith, F. L.
- Reaching and Hearing the Invisible: Organizational Research on Invisible Stigmatized Groups via Web...; 2013; Trau, R. N. C. et al.
- Book Review: Brand Together: How Co-creation Generates Innovation and Re-energizes Brands, by Nicholas...; 2013; Wilson, A.
- Digging deeper: using implicit tests to define consumers' semantic network; 2013; Riviere, P., Cuny, C., Allain, G., Vereijken, C.
- Conceptualising and evaluating experiences with brands on Facebook; 2013; Smith, S.
- An evaluation of mixed methods (diaries and focus groups) when working with older people; 2013; Koopman-Boyden, P., Richardson, M.
- Web Coverage in the UK and its Potential Impact on General Population Web Surveys; 2013; Callegaro, M.
- Issues of Coverage and Sampling in Web Surveys for the General Population; 2013; Lynn, P.
- Attitudes of Nebraska Residents on Nebraska Water Management; 2013; Dillman, D. A., Edwards, M. L.
- Attitudes of Washington Residents on Washington Water Management; 2013; Dillman, D. A., Edwards, M. L.
- Going online with a face-to-face household panel: initial results from an experiment on the Understanding...; 2013; Jaeckle, A., Lynn, P., Burton, J.
- Permission email messages significantly increase gambler retention; 2013; Jolley, W., Lee, A., Mizerski, R., Sadeque, S.
- Doing real time research: Opportunities and challenges; 2013; Back, L., Lury, C., Zimmer, R.
- Developing a New Mixed-Mode Methodology For a Provincial Park Camper Survey in British Columbia; 2013; Dyck, B. W.
- An imputation approach for analyzing mixed-mode surveys; 2013; Kim, J. K., Park, S., Kim, S. Y.
- Impact of mode design on reliability in longitudinal data; 2013; Cernat, A.
- The Relation of Survey Topic and Participation Behavior. Analyzing Unit Nonresponse using web-generated...; 2013; Zillmann, D., Schmitz, A., Blossfeld, H. P.
- Latent legitimacy: joint effects of religious orientation on the association between values and acceptance...; 2013; Henseler, A. K., Siegers, P., Beckers, T.
- A walking exercise on a tightrope: trying to balance coverage, probabilistic sampling and the costs...; 2013; Poggio, T.
- Comparability of substantive results between modes and incentive conditions in a probability-based telephone...; 2013; Pekari, N.
- Trends in Dutch egalitarian attitudes, 1975-2010: An age-period-cohort analysis; 2013; Meuleman, B., Oorschot, W. V.
- Validity of Measuring Educational Attainment - Education and Value Orientation in the European Values...; 2013; Ortmanns, V.
- European Values Study - methodological and substantive applications; 2013; Luijkx, R., Jagodzinski, W.
- The Impact of Culture and Economy on Values and Attitudes; 2013; Duelmer, H., Voicu, M.
- Feasibility of Using Web to Survey at a Sample of Addresses: a UK ESS experiment; 2013; Villar, A.
- The Effect of Differential Mailing Methodologies on Response Rates: Testing Advanced Notices, Pre-Recorded...; 2013; Pens, Y., Cantave, M. A., Gentry, R. J.
- Alone in a Group: Comparison of Effects of a Group-Administered Paper-Pencil Survey Versus an Individually...; 2013; Higgins, W. B., Barlas, F. M., Pflieger, J., Thomas, R. K., Jeffery, D., Mattiko, M.
- The Effect of Survey Mode on Socially Undesirable Responses to Open Ended Questions: Online vs. Paper...; 2013; Hedberg, E., Ceasar, G., Wallace, D.
- Estimation of Expected Academic Engagement Behaviors: The Use of Vague Quantifiers Versus Tallied Responses...; 2013; Cole, J.
- First Contact Strategies for Web Surveys: Is a Phone Call or a Letter the More Effective Introduction...; 2013; Connelly, J., Sjoblom, M., Datta, R., Scholfield Hepburn, P.
- The Effectiveness of Mailed Invitations for Web Surveys; 2013; Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P., Kaczmirek, L.
- One Drink or Two: Does Quantity Depicted in an Image Affect Web Survey Responses?; 2013; Charoenruk, N., Stange, M.
- Multi-Mode Survey Administration: Does Offering Multiple Modes at Once Depress Response Rates?; 2013; Newsome, J., Levin, K., Langetieg, P., Vigil, M., Sebastiani, M.
- The Digital Divide: The internet and social inequality in international perspective; 2013; Ragnedda, M., Muschert, G.
- Survey quality prediction system 2.0; 2013
- Practical tools for designing and weighting survey samples; 2013; Valliant, R. L., Daver, J. A., Kreuter, F.
- Cognitive Probes in Web Surveys: On the Effect of Different Text Box Size and Probing Exposure on Response...; 2013; Behr, D., Bandilla, W., Kaczmirek, L., Braun, M.
- Sensitive Topics in PC and Mobile Web Surveys; 2013; Mavletova, A. M., Couper, M. P.
- Comparison of psychometric properties of internet versions of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability...; 2013; Vesteinsdottir, V., Reips, U. -D., Joinson, A. N., Porsdottir, F.
- Experiences from a probability-based Internet panel: Sample, recruitment and participation; 2013; Scherpenzeel, A.
- Comparison of web-based versus paper-and-pencil administration of a humor survey; 2013; Wang, C.-C., Cheng, C.-L.;, -S., Cheng, Y.-Y.Liu, K.-S.
- The equivalence of Internet versus paper-based surveys in IT/IS adoption research in collectivistic...; 2013; Fang, J., Wen, C., Prybutok, V.