Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance and Research Question:
It is well-documented that online surveys elicit higher reports of socially undesirable behavior than interviewer-administered surveys. However, there are possible exceptions, where the form of the question may inhibit the revelation of prejudicial attitudes. In research exploring race of interviewer effects, Krysan and Couper (2003) found some instances where white respondents (for example) gave more negative responses to interviewers than to computerized instruments. In qualitative debriefings, some respondents noted that talking to an interviewer gave them an opportunity to explain their choice of responses; in the CASI condition (as on the Web; see Krysan and Couper, 2005), they could only pick one of the response options, without the opportunity to justify their choice. We called this the “I’m not a racist, but…” phenomenon. An online experiment was designed to explore the hypothesis that, when given an opportunity to explain or clarify their answers, respondents will give more prejudicial responses.
Methods and Data:
Two experiments were embedded in the LISS online probability-based panel in the Netherlands. In both cases a set of 9 items on attitudes toward immigrants was asked. In the first study, conducted in August 2009 (n=4639), a random half received an open-ended question on a separate page following each closed question. In the second study, conducted in December 2010 (n=5328), for a random half of respondents, an optional open-ended comment appeared below each closed-ended question on the same page.
The results provide support for the hypothesis. In both cases, respondents given the open question gave significantly more prejudiced responses (F[1, 4352]=25.6, p<.001 for Exp. 1 and F[1, 5326]=7.1, p=0.008 for Exp. 2) than those getting only the closed-ended question. However, contrary to expectation, the effect was larger in experiment 1 than 2. We explore this finding in greater detail, examining both responses to individual items and those who made use of the text box to offer comments.
This study suggests value in giving respondents the opportunity to voice their opinions in their own words, rather than just requiring them to agree or disagree with one of the response options.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - USA (2159)
- Online Instruments, Data Collection, and Electronic Measurements: Organizational Advancements; 2013; Bocarnea, M. C., Reynolds, R. A., Baker, J. D.
- Convenient yet not a convenience sample: Jury pools as experimental subject pools; 2013; Murray, G. R., Rugeley, C. R., Mitchell, D.-G., Mondak, J. J.
- The equivalence of Internet versus paper-based surveys in IT/IS adoption research in collectivistic...; 2013; Fang, J., Wen, C., Prybutok, V.
- Examining the Gender Effects of Different Incentive Amounts in a Web Survey; 2013; Boulianne, S. J.
- Online Survey Software; 2013; Baker, J. D.
- Mode Effects in Free-list Elicitation: Comparing Oral, Written, and Web-based Data Collection; 2013; Gravlee, C. C., Bernard, H. R., R., Jacobsohn, A., R.Maxwell, C. R.
- Incentives for college student participation in web-based substance use surveys; 2013; Patrick, M. E., Singer, E., Boyd, C. J., Cranford, J. A., McCabe, S. E.
- The effect of short formative diagnostic web quizzes with minimal feedback; 2013; Baelter, O., Enstroem, E., Klingenberg, B.
- Increasing Web Survey Response Rates in Innovation Research: An Experimental Study of Static and Dynamic...; 2013; Sauermann, H.; Roach, M.
- Survey of Cloud Computing; 2013; Furht, B.
- Up Means Good: The Impact of Screen Position on Evaluative Ratings in Web Surveys.; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- Worldwide online research spending; 2012
- What we can learn from unintentional mobile respondents; 2012; Peterson, G.
- Using paradata to explore item-level response times in surveys; 2012; Couper, M. P., Kreuter, F.
- Using multivariate statistics, 6th Edition; 2012; Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S.
- Unintentional mobile respondents; 2012; Peterson, G.
- The smartphone psychology manifesto; 2012; Miller, G.
- The rise of the "connected viewer"; 2012; Smith, A., Boyles, J. L.
- The practice of social research; 2012; Babbie, E. R.
- The integration of facebook into class management: an exploratory study; 2012; Chou, P. N.
- The effects of item saliency and question design on measurement error in a self-administered survey; 2012; Stern, M. J., Smyth, J. D., Mendez, J.
- The cross platform report. Q2 -2012 - US; 2012
- Speed (necessarily) doesn’t kill: A new way to detect survey satisficing; 2012; Garland, P. et al.
- Smartphone ownership update: September 2012; 2012; Rainie, L.
- Research company spotlight - Mobile surveys; 2012
- Participation of mobile users in traditional online studies; 2012; Jue, A.
- Online survey statistics for the mobile future. Updated with Q3 2012 data; 2012
- NBCU enlists Google, ComScore to track multiscreen Olympics viewing; 2012; Spangler, T.
- More dirty little secrets of online panel research.; 2012
- Mobile usability; 2012; Nielsen, J., Budiu, R.
- Mobile email opens report 2nd half 2011; 2012
- Media tracker; 2012
- Measuring the quality of governmental websites in a controlled versus an online setting with the ‘...; 2012; Elling, S. et al.
- Measuring modern media consumption; 2012; Arini, N.
- Guide to social science data preparation. Best practice throughout the data life cycle; 2012
- GMI Pinnacle; 2012
- Flowing with the mainstream. Is mobile market research finally living up to the hype?; 2012; Townsend, L.
- Explaining rising nonresponse rates in cross-sectional surveys; 2012; Brick, J. M., Williams, D.
- Smartphone Apps and User Engagement: Collecting Data in the Digital Era; 2012; Link, M. W.
- Snowball Sampling in Online Social Networks; 2012; Raissi, M., Ackland, R.
- The Use of Facebook as a Locating and Contacting Tool; 2012; McCarthy, T.
- How Often Do You Use the App with a Bird on It? Exploring Differences in Survey Completion Times, Primacy...; 2012; Buskirk, T. D.
- Efficacy of a health-related Facebook social network site on health-seeking behaviors; 2012; Woolley, P., Peterson, M.
- Methods for eliminating skip statements from questionnaire logic; 2012; Canvanough Spencer, S.
- The war against unengaged online respondents; 2012; Gittelman, S. H., Trimarchi, E.
- Qualitatively Speaking: The five absolute, no-excuse must-dos for online qualitative researchers; 2012; Rossow, A.
- By the Numbers: Lessons for using online panels in B2B research; 2012; Elsner, N.
- Improving Survey Website Usability ; 2012; Vannette, D.
- Specialized Tools for Measuring Past Events ; 2012; Belli, R. F.
- Transparency, Access and the Credibility of Survey Research; 2012; Lupia, A.