Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance and Research Question:
It is well-documented that online surveys elicit higher reports of socially undesirable behavior than interviewer-administered surveys. However, there are possible exceptions, where the form of the question may inhibit the revelation of prejudicial attitudes. In research exploring race of interviewer effects, Krysan and Couper (2003) found some instances where white respondents (for example) gave more negative responses to interviewers than to computerized instruments. In qualitative debriefings, some respondents noted that talking to an interviewer gave them an opportunity to explain their choice of responses; in the CASI condition (as on the Web; see Krysan and Couper, 2005), they could only pick one of the response options, without the opportunity to justify their choice. We called this the “I’m not a racist, but…” phenomenon. An online experiment was designed to explore the hypothesis that, when given an opportunity to explain or clarify their answers, respondents will give more prejudicial responses.
Methods and Data:
Two experiments were embedded in the LISS online probability-based panel in the Netherlands. In both cases a set of 9 items on attitudes toward immigrants was asked. In the first study, conducted in August 2009 (n=4639), a random half received an open-ended question on a separate page following each closed question. In the second study, conducted in December 2010 (n=5328), for a random half of respondents, an optional open-ended comment appeared below each closed-ended question on the same page.
The results provide support for the hypothesis. In both cases, respondents given the open question gave significantly more prejudiced responses (F[1, 4352]=25.6, p<.001 for Exp. 1 and F[1, 5326]=7.1, p=0.008 for Exp. 2) than those getting only the closed-ended question. However, contrary to expectation, the effect was larger in experiment 1 than 2. We explore this finding in greater detail, examining both responses to individual items and those who made use of the text box to offer comments.
This study suggests value in giving respondents the opportunity to voice their opinions in their own words, rather than just requiring them to agree or disagree with one of the response options.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - Online qualitative research (808)
- Should the third reminder be sent? The role of survey response timing on web survey results; 2013; Rao, K., Pennington, J.
- Web panel surveys – can they be designed and used in a scientifically sound way?; 2013; Svensson , J.
- Using an Item Response Theory Approach to Measure Survey Mode of Administration Effects: Analysis of...; 2013; Mariano, L. T., Elliott, M. N.
- Using Internet Panel Surveys for Behavioral Health Surveillance; 2013; Gotway Crawford, C., Okoro, C. A., Dhingra, S., Akcin, H., Zhao, G., Ford, D., Pierannunzi, C.
- Proceedings of The 3rd International Conference: Quantitative And Qualitative Methodologies In The Economic...; 2013; Frangos, C. (ed.)
- Social media data demands a marriage of high-tech and high-touch; 2013; Waldheim, C., Stevens, N.
- Leveraging mobile and online qualitative to get inside shoppers’ heads; 2013; Bryson, J., Ritzo, J.
- A report on the Confirmit Market Research Software Survey 2013; 2013; Macer, T., Wilson, S.
- Thoughts on using the new online qualitative tools; 2013; Freund, N. M.
- Web Panel Representativeness; 2013; Bianchi, A., Biffignandi, S.
- Utilization of High-Technology to Collect Health Risk Assessment Information from Medicare Members:...; 2013; Freedman, D., VanderHorst, N.
- Going online with a face-to-face household panel: initial results from an experiment on the Understanding...; 2013; Jaeckle, A., Lynn, P., Burton, J.
- Best of Both Worlds? Can we make convenience samples representative?; 2013; Doe, P.
- Why Big Data is a Small Idea…and Why You Shouldn’t Worry So Much; 2013; Needel, S.
- Insights into Action Profiling shopping occasions for retailers through mobile and online research; 2013; Churkina, O., Morris, T.
- Explaining Interview Duration in Web Surveys on Political Attitudes and Behavior: A Multilevel Approach...; 2013; Gummer, T., Rossmann, J.
- An Examination of the Relationship Between Pretest Method Results and Data Quality; 2013; Maitland, A.
- Avatare in der Marktforschung: Effekte künst-licher Interviewer im Online-Interview; 2013; Luetters, H.
- Möglichkeiten zur impliziten Messung von Emotionen am Beispiel webcambasierter Gesichtsausdruckserkennung...; 2013; Wachenfeld, A., Moentmann, A., Bernet, F.
- Does It Pay Off to Include Non-Internet Households in an Internet Panel? ; 2013; Leenheer, J., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Video Interviewing: An Exploration of the Feasibility as a Mode of Survey Application; 2013; Jeannis, M., Terry, T. L., Heman-Ackah, R., Price, M.
- The 2012 Confirmit Annual Market Research Software Survey; 2013; Macer, T., Wilson, S.
- Data Collection in Sociolinguistics: Methods and Applications; 2013; Mallinson, C., Childs, B., Van Herk, G.
- Survey Sidekick: Learning & designing scientifically sound surveys; 2013; Hsiao, I.-H., Malhotra, M., Joo, J., Chae, H. S., Natriello, G.
- A probability-based web panel for UK policy research: some initial thoughts from a Government survey...; 2013; Littlechild, J.
- Factors Influencing Survey Participation Rates on an Online, Probability-Based Research Panel; 2013; Wiest, D.
- Effects of Self-Awareness on Disclosure During Skype Survey Interviews; 2013; Feuer, S., Schober, M. F.
- Will Snowball Sampling Leave Your Data in the Cold?; 2013; Cavallaro, K.
- Panel Attrition: Separating Stayers, Sleepers and Other Types of Drop-Out in an Internet Panel; 2013; Lugtig, P. J.
- Cognitive Interviewing in Online Modes: a Comparison of Data Collected in Second Life and Skype; 2013; Swicegood, J. E., Head, B., Dean, E., Keating, M.
- Effects of Displaying Videos on Measurement in a Web Survey; 2013; Mendelson, J., Gibson, J. L., Romano Bergstrom, J. C.
- Innovative Retention Methods in Panel Research: Can SmartPhones Improve Long-Term Panel Participation...; 2013; Dayton, J. J., Dyer, A.
- Predicting Survey Breakoff in Internet Survey Panels; 2013; Al Baghal, T., McCutcheon, A. L., Tsabutashvili, D.
- Are You Seeing What I am Seeing? Exploring Response Option Visual Design Effects With Eye-Tracking; 2013; Libman, A., Smyth, J. D., Olson, K.
- Evaluating Interactive Feedback in Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (CASI); 2013; Hudson, M. L., Hupp, A., Zhang, C., Schroeder, H. M.
- Responsive Design for Web Panel Data Collection; 2013; Bianchi, A., Biffignandi, S.
- Using Web Ex to Conduct Usability Testing of an On-Line Survey Instrument; 2013; Stettler, K.
- Effects of Lotteries on Response Behavior in Online Panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- The E-Interview in Qualitative Research; 2013; Bampton, R., Cowton, C., Downs, Y.
- Methodological Considerations of Qualitative Email Interviews; 2013; Nehls, K.
- Research Intentions are Nothing without Technology: Mixed-Method Web Surveys and the Coberen Wall of...; 2013; Ganassali, S., Rodriguez-Santos, C.
- Using Web Surveys for Psychology Experiments: A Case Study in New Media Technology for Research; 2013; Peden, B. F., Tiry , A. M.
- Virtual research assistants: Replacing human interviewers by automated avatars in virtual worlds; 2013; Hasler, B. S., Tuchman, P., Friedman, D.
- Compared to a small, supervised lab experiment, a large, unsupervised web-based experiment on a previously...; 2013; Ryan, R. S., Wilde, M., Crist, S.
- An approach to selecting online respondents; 2013; Terhanian, G.
- By the Numbers: Theory of adaptation or survival of the fittest?; 2013; Cavallaro, K.
- Using a web-based survey tool to undertake a Delphi study: Application for nurse education research; 2013; Gill, F. J., Leslie, G. D., Grech, C., Latour, J. M.
- Pros and cons of virtual interviewers – vote in the discussion about surveytainment; 2013; Póltorak, M., Kowalski, J.
- Does one really know?: Avoiding noninformative answers in a reliable way.; 2013; de Leeuw, E. D., Boevee, A., Hox, J.
- Sampling online communities: using triplets as basis for a (semi-) automated hyperlink web crawler.; 2013; Veny, Y.