Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance and Research Question:
It is well-documented that online surveys elicit higher reports of socially undesirable behavior than interviewer-administered surveys. However, there are possible exceptions, where the form of the question may inhibit the revelation of prejudicial attitudes. In research exploring race of interviewer effects, Krysan and Couper (2003) found some instances where white respondents (for example) gave more negative responses to interviewers than to computerized instruments. In qualitative debriefings, some respondents noted that talking to an interviewer gave them an opportunity to explain their choice of responses; in the CASI condition (as on the Web; see Krysan and Couper, 2005), they could only pick one of the response options, without the opportunity to justify their choice. We called this the “I’m not a racist, but…” phenomenon. An online experiment was designed to explore the hypothesis that, when given an opportunity to explain or clarify their answers, respondents will give more prejudicial responses.
Methods and Data:
Two experiments were embedded in the LISS online probability-based panel in the Netherlands. In both cases a set of 9 items on attitudes toward immigrants was asked. In the first study, conducted in August 2009 (n=4639), a random half received an open-ended question on a separate page following each closed question. In the second study, conducted in December 2010 (n=5328), for a random half of respondents, an optional open-ended comment appeared below each closed-ended question on the same page.
The results provide support for the hypothesis. In both cases, respondents given the open question gave significantly more prejudiced responses (F[1, 4352]=25.6, p<.001 for Exp. 1 and F[1, 5326]=7.1, p=0.008 for Exp. 2) than those getting only the closed-ended question. However, contrary to expectation, the effect was larger in experiment 1 than 2. We explore this finding in greater detail, examining both responses to individual items and those who made use of the text box to offer comments.
This study suggests value in giving respondents the opportunity to voice their opinions in their own words, rather than just requiring them to agree or disagree with one of the response options.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography (6476)
- The Handbook of Questionnaire Design; 2013; Krosnick, J. A., Fabrigar, L. R.
- ESSnet Data: Collection for Social Surveys using Multiple Modes; 2013; Sattelberger, S., Blanke, K.
- Using Technology to Conduct Questionnaire Evaluations with Hard to Reach Populations ; 2013; Ridolfo, H., Ott, K.
- Recent Experiences with Electronic Questionnaire Testing at Statistics Canada ; 2013; Lawrence, D.
- Usability and Accessibility Guidelines for Web Sites and Web Surveys ; 2013; Ashenfelter, K. T.
- Questionnaire development & testing in the 21st century: What are the challenges?; 2013; Collins, D.
- Improved Dialogue Features in Web Surveys?; 2013; Lund, K.
- Evaluation of a Sequential Mixed-Mode Design Experiment with Physicians on Response Rates, Costs, and...; 2013; Geisen, E., Olmsted, M. G., Murphy, J., Stanley, M.
- When We Do Not Know the Difference – the Level of DK in Different Question Formats and Different...; 2013; Schwarzer, S., Zeglovits, E., Connor, D. S.
- New Versus Old Technologies: An Examination of Usability and Cognitive Issues Across Modes Among Respondents...; 2013; Nichols, E. M., Goerman, P. L., Jurgenson, N., King, T., Olmsted, M. G., Childs, J. H.
- Factors Influencing Survey Participation Rates on an Online, Probability-Based Research Panel; 2013; Wiest, D.
- Effects of Self-Awareness on Disclosure During Skype Survey Interviews; 2013; Feuer, S., Schober, M. F.
- The Effect of Differential Mailing Methodologies on Response Rates: Testing Advanced Notices, Pre-Recorded...; 2013; Pens, Y., Cantave, M. A., Gentry, R. J.
- The Influence of Respondent Incentives on Item Nonresponse and Measurement Error in a Web Survey; 2013; Felderer, B., Kreuter, F., Winter, J.
- A Multi-Survey, Multi-Methodological Assessment of Perception of Need and Quality of Life: Opinion Polling...; 2013; Levy, D.,
- Eliminate Item Non-Response: The Effect of Forcing Respondents to Answer in Web Surveys; 2013; Leach, L. M.
- The Influence of Answer Box Format, Personal Topic Interest, and Respondent Characteristics on Response...; 2013; Keusch, F.
- Using Motivating Prompts to Increase Responses to Open-ended Questions in Mixed-mode Surveys: Where...; 2013; Israel, G. D.
- How Open Are We to the Open-Ended Questions?; 2013; Mamedova, S.
- Will Snowball Sampling Leave Your Data in the Cold?; 2013; Cavallaro, K.
- Panel Attrition: Separating Stayers, Sleepers and Other Types of Drop-Out in an Internet Panel; 2013; Lugtig, P. J.
- Building a History: Collecting Comprehensive Employment Data in a Web-Based, Multi-Mode Survey; 2013; Cominole, M., Bennett, C., Caves, L.
- Augmenting Paper Diaries With Phone and Web Data Retrieval: Is it Effective?; 2013; Wargelin, L., Minser, J., Homer, Z., Fleeman, A., ZuWallack, R. S.
- Alone in a Group: Comparison of Effects of a Group-Administered Paper-Pencil Survey Versus an Individually...; 2013; Higgins, W. B., Barlas, F. M., Pflieger, J., Thomas, R. K., Jeffery, D., Mattiko, M.
- The Effect of Survey Mode on Socially Undesirable Responses to Open Ended Questions: Online vs. Paper...; 2013; Hedberg, E., Ceasar, G., Wallace, D.
- Mode Effects in a National Establishment Survey; 2013; Daley, K., Phillips, B. T.
- Cognitive Interviewing in Online Modes: a Comparison of Data Collected in Second Life and Skype; 2013; Swicegood, J. E., Head, B., Dean, E., Keating, M.
- Mobile Browser Web Surveys: Testing Response Rates, Data Quality and Best Practices; 2013; McGeeney, K., Marlar, J.
- Comparing Tablet, Computer, and Smartphone Survey Administrations; 2013; Wells, T., Bailey, J., Link, M. W.
- Mode Choice on an iPhone Increases Survey Data Quality; 2013; Conrad, F. G., Schober, M. F., Zhang, C., Yan, H. G., Vickers, L., Johnston, M., Hupp, A., Hemingway...
- Online Survey Participation via Mobile Devices: Findings From Seven Access Panel Studies; 2013; Bosnjak, M., Poggio, T., Funke, F.
- Speeding and Non-Differentiation in Web Surveys: Evidence of Correlation and Strategies for Reduction...; 2013; Zhang, C.
- Use of Drag-and-Drop Rating Scales in Web Surveys and Its Effect on Survey Reports and Data Quality; 2013; Kunz, T.
- Effects of Respondent Reluctance, Mode, and Technical Difficulties on Straight- Lining and Refusals...; 2013; Gibson, J. L., Mendelson, J.
- The Relations Among Different Cognitive Shortcuts in Surveys; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Medway, R., Presser, S.
- Suppressing Survey Response: Further Evidence to Not Use Web Instruction Cards; 2013; Puniello, O. T., Weiner, M., Noland, R. B.
- Differential Incentives in a Dual Mode Survey of Health Care Providers; 2013; Roff, B., Barrett, K.
- Demonstration of an Integrated Respondent Management and Data Collection Tool for Mixed-Mode (Phone/...; 2013; Luxenberg, H., Rainey, J.
- Effects of Displaying Videos on Measurement in a Web Survey; 2013; Mendelson, J., Gibson, J. L., Romano Bergstrom, J. C.
- The Effect of Attempting to Recruit Respondents to a Web-Based Diary on Overall Response Rate; 2013; Cantave, M. A. Gentry, R. J.
- Comparisons of Online Recruitment Strategies: Craigslist, Facebook, Google Ads and Amazon’s Mechanical...; 2013; Antoun, C., Zhang, C., Conrad, F. G., Schober, M. F.
- Watch Your Language!: The Impact of the Survey Language on Bilingual Hispanics’ Response Process...; 2013; Ay, M., Gross, W., Cobb, C. L., Thomas, R. K.
- Estimation of Expected Academic Engagement Behaviors: The Use of Vague Quantifiers Versus Tallied Responses...; 2013; Cole, J.
- Self-Reported Participation in Research Practices Among Survey Methodology Researchers; 2013; Perez-Vergara, K., Smith, C., Lowenstein, C., Ozonoff, A., Martins, Y.
- Changing of the Guard: Effects of Different Self-Administered Survey Modes on Sensitive Questions; 2013; Barlas, F. M., Higgins, W. B., Pflieger, J., Thomas, R. K., Jeffery, D., Mattiko, M.
- Estimating Measurement Effects of Survey Modes From Between and Within Subject Designs; 2013; Klausch, L. T., Hox, J., Schouten, B.
- Web Versus Outbound: A Mode Face-Off Following the Presidential Debate; 2013; Marlar, J.
- Examining Response Time Outliers Though Paradata in Online Panel Surveys; 2013; Lee, J., Al Baghal, T.
- Innovative Retention Methods in Panel Research: Can SmartPhones Improve Long-Term Panel Participation...; 2013; Dayton, J. J., Dyer, A.
- Predicting Survey Breakoff in Internet Survey Panels; 2013; Al Baghal, T., McCutcheon, A. L., Tsabutashvili, D.