Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: Open-ended questions are often used to gather short numeric information in self-administered web questionnaires. Respondents are encouraged to enter numbers, quantities or frequencies into input fields, most often without any computerized formatting constraints predominantly in order to prevent item nonresponse. However, the absence of any formatting restrictions encourages large variances in answers deviating from the desired format, including value ranges, estimations, alphanumeric supplements, or even different measuring units which affect data quality negatively, and increase the efforts for data cleansing and preparation. Thus, concise and clear formatting instructions are needed to guide respondents providing answers in the desired format. Considering the fact that instructions are likely to be ignored the question arises how different modes of verbal instructions and visual cues can be applied to improve the impact of formatting instructions, and finally to enhance data quality.
Methods & Data: In a between-subjects field experiment conducted among university freshman students in an opt-in panel (N=670), we tested different visual modes of formatting instructions in open-ended numeric questions: (1) conventional instruction in a static manner, (2) dynamic instruction in a tooltip appearing when the mouse cursor hovers over the input field, and (3) symbolic instruction in terms of pre-defined default values in the input field indicating the desired response format. The effectiveness of each instruction mode was determined by the proportion of formally correct answers.
Results: Findings indicated that the implementation of dynamic formatting elements in terms of tooltips or default values had no positive effect on an improvement of response quality compared to conventional static formatting instructions. Even a combination of tooltips and pre-filled symbols could not achieve a significant increase in correctly formatted answers compared to the sole presentation of a fixed instruction.
Added Value: The results indicated that static formatting instructions should not be replaced hastily without examining the effect of dynamic elements sufficiently. However, initial findings suggested the potential of dynamic formatting instructions in enhancing the positive effect of conventional instructions.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography (6374)
- Rewards - Money for Nothing?; 2013; Cape, P. J., Martin, P.
- Effects of incentive reduction after a series of higher incentive waves in a probability-based online...; 2013; Struminskaya, B., Kaczmirek, L., Schaurer, I., Bandilla, W.
- Timing of Nonparticipation in an Online Panel: The effect of incentive strategies; 2013; Douhou, S., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Mixed-mode including web: Recent developments at Statistics Netherlands; 2013; Luiten, A., Schouten, B.
- Web coverage in the UK and its potential impact on general population web surveys; 2013; Callegaro, M.
- Surveys on Mobile Devices: Opportunities and Challenges; 2013; Couper, M. P.
- Measurement effects in mixed-mode panel surveys; 2013; Lugtig, P. J.
- Life history calendars - a viable method for web-based data collection?; 2013; Glasner, T., van der Vaart, W.
- Measurement issues in web surveys: An overview of opportunities and challenges; 2013; Calderwood, L.
- Experiences from a probability-based Internet panel: Sample, recruitment and participation; 2013; Scherpenzeel, A.
- Participation and engagement in web surveys of the general population: An overview of challenges and...; 2013; Roberts, C.
- Using Web Survey Panels to Estimate Population Characteristics: A Comparison of Alternative Approaches...; 2013; Rivers, D.
- Online Research, Game On!; 2013; Puleston, J.
- The ONS Beyond 2011 Programme & possible implications for social surveys; 2013; Morris, L.
- Issues of Coverage and Sampling in Web Surveys for the General Population: An Overview; 2013; Lynn, P.
- Use of a Social Networking Web Site for Recruiting Canadian Youth for Medical Research; 2013; Chu, J. L., Snider, C. E.
- Comparison of web-based versus paper-and-pencil administration of a humor survey; 2013; Wang, C.-C., Cheng, C.-L.;, Liu, K.-S., Cheng, Y.-Y.
- The Design of Grids in Web Surveys; 2013; Couper, M. P., Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Zhang, C.
- The smartphone in survey research: experiments for time use data; 2013; Fernee, H., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Survey Research; 2013; Abbott, M. L., McKinney, J.
- Understanding and Applying Research Design; 2013; Abbott, M. L., McKinney, J.
- Large-Scale Analysis and Testing; 2013; Cao, M., Zhang, Q.
- The Science of Web Surveys; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- How to create online questionnaires: A beginner's guide to survey design for businesses and students...; 2013; Lipscomb, L.
- True experimental data collection on the Internet; 2013; Reips, U. -D., Krantz, J. H.
- Virtual Research Methods; 2013; Hine, C.
- Askito: An open source Web questionnaire tool; 2013; Reips, U. -D., Heilmann, T.
- Informed Consent for Web Paradata Use; 2013; Couper, M. P., Singer, E.
- Measurement invariance and quality of composite scores in a face-to-face and a web survey; 2013; Revilla, M.
- Exploring Response Differences between Face-to-Face and Web Surveys: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis...; 2013; Bennink, M., Moors, G., Gelissen, J.
- 'Ready to complete the survey on Facebook': Web 2.0 as a research tool in business studies; 2013; Gregori, A., Baltar, F.
- Surveying “difficult-to-sample” backpackers through Facebook? Employing a mixed-mode dual...; 2013; Morris Paris, C.
- The Use of Mixed Methods in Organizational Communication Research; 2013; Salem, P. J.
- The Use of E-Questionnaires in Organizational Surveys; 2013; Brender-Ilan, Y., Vinitzky, G.
- Online Instruments, Data Collection, and Electronic Measurements: Organizational Advancements; 2013; Bocarnea, M. C., Reynolds, R. A., Baker, J. D.
- Convenient yet not a convenience sample: Jury pools as experimental subject pools; 2013; Murray, G. R., Rugeley, C. R., Mitchell, D.-G., Mondak, J. J.
- The equivalence of Internet versus paper-based surveys in IT/IS adoption research in collectivistic...; 2013; Fang, J., Wen, C., Prybutok, V.
- Examining the Gender Effects of Different Incentive Amounts in a Web Survey; 2013; Boulianne, S. J.
- Online Survey Software; 2013; Baker, J. D.
- How Do Lotteries and Study Results Influence Response Behavior in Online Panels?; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Mode Effects in Free-list Elicitation: Comparing Oral, Written, and Web-based Data Collection; 2013; Gravlee, C. C., Bernard, H. R., R., Jacobsohn, A., R.Maxwell, C. R.
- Incentives for college student participation in web-based substance use surveys; 2013; Patrick, M. E., Singer, E., Boyd, C. J., Cranford, J. A., McCabe, S. E.
- The effect of short formative diagnostic web quizzes with minimal feedback; 2013; Baelter, O., Enstroem, E., Klingenberg, B.
- Increasing Web Survey Response Rates in Innovation Research: An Experimental Study of Static and Dynamic...; 2013; Sauermann, H.; Roach, M.
- Sample composition discrepancies in different stages of a probability-based online panel; 2013; Bosnjak, M., Haas, I., Galesic, M., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P.
- Survey of Cloud Computing; 2013; Furht, B.
- A comparison of data quality and practicality of online versus postal questionnaires in a sample of...; 2013; King, M. T., Butow, P., Olver, I., Smith, A. B.
- Up Means Good: The Impact of Screen Position on Evaluative Ratings in Web Surveys.; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- Worldwide online research spending; 2012
- What we can learn from unintentional mobile respondents; 2012; Peterson, G.