Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: Open-ended questions are often used to gather short numeric information in self-administered web questionnaires. Respondents are encouraged to enter numbers, quantities or frequencies into input fields, most often without any computerized formatting constraints predominantly in order to prevent item nonresponse. However, the absence of any formatting restrictions encourages large variances in answers deviating from the desired format, including value ranges, estimations, alphanumeric supplements, or even different measuring units which affect data quality negatively, and increase the efforts for data cleansing and preparation. Thus, concise and clear formatting instructions are needed to guide respondents providing answers in the desired format. Considering the fact that instructions are likely to be ignored the question arises how different modes of verbal instructions and visual cues can be applied to improve the impact of formatting instructions, and finally to enhance data quality.
Methods & Data: In a between-subjects field experiment conducted among university freshman students in an opt-in panel (N=670), we tested different visual modes of formatting instructions in open-ended numeric questions: (1) conventional instruction in a static manner, (2) dynamic instruction in a tooltip appearing when the mouse cursor hovers over the input field, and (3) symbolic instruction in terms of pre-defined default values in the input field indicating the desired response format. The effectiveness of each instruction mode was determined by the proportion of formally correct answers.
Results: Findings indicated that the implementation of dynamic formatting elements in terms of tooltips or default values had no positive effect on an improvement of response quality compared to conventional static formatting instructions. Even a combination of tooltips and pre-filled symbols could not achieve a significant increase in correctly formatted answers compared to the sole presentation of a fixed instruction.
Added Value: The results indicated that static formatting instructions should not be replaced hastily without examining the effect of dynamic elements sufficiently. However, initial findings suggested the potential of dynamic formatting instructions in enhancing the positive effect of conventional instructions.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - Fuchs, M. (47)
- Using Eye Tracking Data to Understand Respondent's Processing of Rating Scales; 2013; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Dynamic Visual Design for List-Style Open-Ended Questions in Web Surveys; 2013; Fuchs, M.
- Using interactive feedback to enhance response quality in Web surveys. The case of open-ended questions...; 2013; Emde, M., Fuchs, M.
- Reducing Response Order Effects in Check-All-That-Apply Questions by Use of Dynamic Tooltip Instructions...; 2013; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Improving RDD Cell Phone Samples. Evaluation of Different Pre-call Validation Methods; 2012; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Positioning of Clarification Features in Web Surveys: Evidence from Eye Tracking Data; 2012; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Using Adaptive Questionnaire Design in Open-ended Questions: A Fieldexperimental Study on the Size of...; 2012; Fuchs, M., Emde, M.
- Effects of number of response options in web surveys: The role of verbal labels; 2012; Thorsdottir, F., Fuchs, M., Jonsdottir, J.
- Effects of Static versus Dynamic Formatting Instructions for Open-Ended Numerical Questions in Web Surveys...; 2012; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Exploring Animated Faces Scales in Web Surveys: Drawbacks and Prospects; 2012; Emde, M., Fuchs, M.
- Video enhanced web survey; 2011; Fuchs, M., Kunz, T., Gebhard, F.
- Addressing Panel Attrition in Mobile Phone Panel Surveys: Can Incentives and Switching to Mobile Web...; 2011; Busse, B., Fuchs, M.
- Mobile-only – Persistent status or passage in the life course? Results from a Mobile Phone Panel...; 2011; Busse, B., Fuchs, M., Neuert, C.
- Exploring Visual Design Effects In Web Survey Questions. An Experimental Study Using Animated Answer...; 2011; Emde, M., Fuchs, M.
- The Coverage Bias of Mobile Web Surveys; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- The Coverage Bias of Mobile Web Surveys Across European Countries ; 2009; Fuchs, M., Busse, B.
- Are people sharing their mobile phones? Selection probabilities in cellular telephone surveys; 2009; Fuchs, M., Busse, B.
- Is a cell phone really a personal device? Results from the first wave of a mobile phone panel on sharing...; 2009; Fuchs, M., Busse, B.
- Are Respondents Sharing their Mobile Phones? Preliminary results based on a mobile phone panel in Germany...; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- Dynamic feedback in open-ended questions: Experiments on the visual design language of Web surveys; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- The relative coverage bias caused by the mobile-only population across Europe; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- The Video-Enhanced Web Survey Data Quality and Cognitive Processing of Questions; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- Gender-of-Interviewer Effects in a Video-Enhanced Web Survey: Results from a Randomized Field Experiment...; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- Differences in the Visual Design Language of Paper-and-Pencil Surveys Versus Web Surveys A Field Experimental...; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- Mobile web surveys: A preliminary discussion of methodological implications; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Response Effects in Video-enhanced Web Surveys; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- The relative Coverage Error in Telephone Surveys caused by Mobile-Only Populations across Europe; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Communicative Channels, Cognitive Processes and Question Understanding: Results from a Randomized Field...; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Gender-of-Interviewer Effects in Video-Enhanced Web Surveys. Results from a Randomized Field-Experiment...; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Using Audio and Video Clips in Web Surveys — Feasibility and Impact on Data Quality; 2007; Fuchs, M., Funke, F.
- Video Web Surveys: Results from field-experimental comparisons with text-based Web surveys; 2007; Fuchs, M., Funke, F.
- Asking for Numbers and Quantities: Visual Design Effects in Web Surveys and Paper and Pencil Surveys; 2007; Fuchs, M.
- Nonresponse and Measurement Error in Mobile Phone Surveys; 2006; Fuchs, M.
- Online student feedback surveys. Methodological issues in comparison to the traditional classroom survey...; 2005; Fuchs, M.
- Kognitive Prozesse und Antwortverhalten in einer Internet-Befragung; 2003; Fuchs, M.
- Item Non-Response Reminder in a Web Survey; 2003; Fuchs, M.
- Methodological Issues in Mobile Phone Surveys; 2003; Vehovar, V., Batagelj, Z., Callegaro, M., Fuchs, M., Kuusela, V.
- Cognitive Processes in Web Surveys; 2003; Fuchs, M.
- Cognitive processes when answering online questionnaires; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- Comparing Web Surveys and Paper & Pencil Surveys: Measurement Error and Mode Differences; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- Paper and Pencil versus Web Survey. Measurement Effects and Mode Differences; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- Cognitive processes in Web Surveys; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- Screen Design in a Web Survey; 2001; Fuchs, M.
- Length of Input Field and the Responses Provided in a Self-Administrated Survey: A Comparison of a Paper...; 2001; Fuchs, M., Couper, M. P.
- Technology Effects: Do CAPI or PAPI Interviews Take Longer?; 2000; Fuchs, M., Couper, M. P., Hansen, S. E.
- Technology effects: Interview duration in CAPI and paper and pencil surveys; 2000; Fuchs, M., Couper, M. P., Hansen, S. E.
- Screen Design and Question Order in a CAI Instrument Effects on Interviewers and Respondents; 1999; Fuchs, M.