Web Survey Bibliography
Effects of number of response options in web surveys: The role of verbal labels
Relevance and research question: Fully labelled agree/disagree rating scales are often used to obtain data pertaining to subjective phenomena in web surveys. Although the link between the number of response options and the quality of information obtained with rating scales is well established, the role of the verbal labels attached to the options is less well studied. The verbal lables define the length and the fineness of a fully labelled rating scale and adding response options may therefore either lengthen the scale and/or make it finer. The aim of the present work it to examine the impact of altering the number and verbal labels of response options on the quality of the information obtained. Fully labelled rating scales with five, seven and nine response options are examined. Verbal labels are either used to lengthen the scales or to make them finer.
Method and data: University students in Germany and Iceland were presented with six questions measuring attitude towards university education in a web survey. Respondents were randomly assigned to six experimental conditions. 1) Five response options with the labels strongly, somewhat and neither/nor, 2) five response options with the lables fully, somewhat and neither nor, 3) seven options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat and neither nor, 4) seven response options with the labels strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor, 5) seven response options with the labels fully, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor and finally 6) nine response options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor.
Results: The results show that the effect of the number of response options on the quality of the information obtained depends on whehter the added response options lengthen the scale or make it finer. A finer scale seems to reduce non-differentiation and extreme response style.
Added value: The findings show that the verbal labels attached to the response options must be taken into account in empirical research on the optimal number of response options.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - Other (510)
- Beauty is more than screen deep: Improving the web survey respondent experience through socially-present...; 2014; Casey, T. W., Poropat, A.
- MOTUS: Modular online Time-Use Survey; 2013; Joeri, M., Ignace, G., van Tienoven, T. P., Djiwo, W.
- Factors affecting the decision to participate in the internet option for the 2010 Census of Korea ; 2013; Lee, E., Kim, S.
- Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity of Brazilian Schoolchildren: Usability Testing of a Web-Based...; 2013; da Costa, F. F., Pacheco Schmoelz, C., Fernandes Davies, V., Di Pietro, P. F., Kupek, E., de Assis,...
- An evaluation of mixed methods (diaries and focus groups) when working with older people; 2013; Koopman-Boyden, P., Richardson, M.
- Methodological Issues in the Design of Online Surveys for Measuring Unethical Work Behavior: Recommendations...; 2013; Wouters, K., Maesschalck, J., Peeters, C. F. W., Roosen, M.
- Use of mobile devices to answer online surveys: implications for research; 2013; Cunningham, J. A., Neighbors, C., Bertholet, N., Hendershot, C. S.
- Field Lessons From the Delivery of Questionnaires to Young Adults Using Mobile Phones; 2013; van Heerden, A. C., Norris, S. A., Tollman, S. M., Stein, A. D., Richter, L. M.
- The Challenges and Benefits of Distance Mentoring; 2013; Lach, H. W. et al
- Web-Based Versus Traditional Paper Questionnaires: A Mixed-Mode Survey With a Nordic Perspective; 2013; Hohwue, L., Lyshol, H., Gissler, M., Hrafn Jonsson, S., Petzold, M., Obel, C.
- Permission email messages significantly increase gambler retention; 2013; Jolley, W., Lee, A., Mizerski, R., Sadeque, S.
- The moderating role of socio-semantic networks on online buzz diffusion; 2013; Lee, H., Lee, D. I., Kim, T., Kim, T., Lee, J.
- “Translating” between survey answer formats; 2013; Dolnicar, S., Grün, B.
- The impact of website content dimension and e-trust on e-marketing effectiveness: The case of Iranian...; 2013; Rahimnia, F., Farzaneh Hassanzadeh, J.
- Specific mixed-mode methodologies to include sensory disabled people in quantitative surveys; 2013; Sebastien, F., Marc, J., Patrick, I.
- An imputation approach for analyzing mixed-mode surveys; 2013; Kim, J. K., Park, S., Kim, S. Y.
- Comparability of substantive results between modes and incentive conditions in a probability-based telephone...; 2013; Pekari, N.
- Trends in Dutch egalitarian attitudes, 1975-2010: An age-period-cohort analysis; 2013; Meuleman, B., Oorschot, W. V.
- Comparing Questionnaire Pretesting Methods for the 2015 Population and Housing Census of Korea; 2013; Park, Y.
- Mixed Methods in Cognitive Interviewing: An analysis of the Russian version of the Schwartz Value Survey...; 2013; Efremova, M., Panyusheva, T.
- A mixed methods approach to investigate how Cognitive Interviewing findings can improve the validity...; 2013; Padilla, J. L., Miller, K., Loeb, M.
- Error Prevention through Interviewer Emulation? Introducing questionnaire dialogues in the Norwegian...; 2013; Gravem, D. F.
- Advancing the field of questionnaire translation - identifying problems, discussing methods, pushing...; 2013; Behr, D., Dorer, B., Van Houten, G
- The Impact of Culture and Economy on Values and Attitudes; 2013; Duelmer, H., Voicu, M.
- Educational attainment in cross-national surveys: instrument design, data collection, harmonisation...; 2013; Schneider, S.
- Mode Effects in Mixed-Mode Surveys: Prevention, Diagnostics, and Adjustment 1; 2013; de Leeuw, E. D., Dillman, D. A., Schouten, B.
- History of Technology in Research; 2013; Sahu, C.
- The Online Statistical Survey As An Alternative To Traditional Methods; 2013; Dinu, S., Nitoiu, M., Pomazan, C.
- Improved Dialogue Features in Web Surveys?; 2013; Lund, K.
- Research Intentions are Nothing without Technology: Mixed-Method Web Surveys and the Coberen Wall of...; 2013; Ganassali, S., Rodriguez-Santos, C.
- Reducing Response Burden for Enterprises Combining Methods for Data Collection on the Internet; 2013; Vik, T.
- Measuring Wages Worldwide: Exploring the Potentials and Constraints of Volunteer Web Surveys; 2013; Steinmetz, S., Raess, D., Tijdens, K., de Pedraza, P.
- Data Quality in PC and Mobile Web Surveys; 2013; Mavletova, A. M.
- PDAs in socio-economic surveys: instrument bias, surveyor bias or both?; 2013; Escobal, J., Benites, S.
- Virtual research assistants: Replacing human interviewers by automated avatars in virtual worlds; 2013; Hasler, B. S., Tuchman, P., Friedman, D.
- Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study...; 2013; Morgan, A. J., Jorm, A. F., Mackinnon, A. J.
- Challenges for Researchers Investigating Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Intentions of Young Women Living...; 2013; Herbert, D. L., Loxton, D., Bateson, D., Weisberg, E., Lucke, J. C.
- Using a web-based survey tool to undertake a Delphi study: Application for nurse education research; 2013; Gill, F. J., Leslie, G. D., Grech, C., Latour, J. M.
- Comparison of web-based versus paper-and-pencil administration of a humor survey; 2013; Wang, C.-C., Cheng, C.-L.;, -S., Cheng, Y.-Y.Liu, K.-S.
- Large-Scale Analysis and Testing; 2013; Cao, M., Zhang, Q.
- Askito: An open source Web questionnaire tool; 2013; Reips, U. -D., Heilmann, T.
- Measurement invariance and quality of composite scores in a face-to-face and a web survey; 2013; Revilla, M.
- 'Ready to complete the survey on Facebook': Web 2.0 as a research tool in business studies; 2013; Gregori, A., Baltar, F.
- Surveying “difficult-to-sample” backpackers through Facebook? Employing a mixed-mode dual...; 2013; Morris Paris, C.
- A Comparison of the Quality of Questions in a Face-to-face and a Web Survey; 2013; Revilla, M., Saris, W. E.
- A comparison of data quality and practicality of online versus postal questionnaires in a sample of...; 2013; King, M. T., Butow, P., Olver, I., Smith, A. B.
- Sampling Frame Coverage and Domain Adjustment Procedures for Internet Surveys; 2013; Asan, Z., Ayhan, H. O.
- The power of sharing information The e-Frame European Network on Measuring Progress and the Wikiprogress...; 2012; Fazio, D., Gulbahar, S., Hariche, A.
- Combining GIS coordinates with mail survey research to explain resident attitudes towards energy development...; 2012; Jacquet, J. B.
- The efficiency and effectiveness of mixed mode versus single mode designs; 2012; Blunsdon, B.