Web Survey Bibliography
Effects of number of response options in web surveys: The role of verbal labels
Relevance and research question: Fully labelled agree/disagree rating scales are often used to obtain data pertaining to subjective phenomena in web surveys. Although the link between the number of response options and the quality of information obtained with rating scales is well established, the role of the verbal labels attached to the options is less well studied. The verbal lables define the length and the fineness of a fully labelled rating scale and adding response options may therefore either lengthen the scale and/or make it finer. The aim of the present work it to examine the impact of altering the number and verbal labels of response options on the quality of the information obtained. Fully labelled rating scales with five, seven and nine response options are examined. Verbal labels are either used to lengthen the scales or to make them finer.
Method and data: University students in Germany and Iceland were presented with six questions measuring attitude towards university education in a web survey. Respondents were randomly assigned to six experimental conditions. 1) Five response options with the labels strongly, somewhat and neither/nor, 2) five response options with the lables fully, somewhat and neither nor, 3) seven options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat and neither nor, 4) seven response options with the labels strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor, 5) seven response options with the labels fully, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor and finally 6) nine response options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor.
Results: The results show that the effect of the number of response options on the quality of the information obtained depends on whehter the added response options lengthen the scale or make it finer. A finer scale seems to reduce non-differentiation and extreme response style.
Added value: The findings show that the verbal labels attached to the response options must be taken into account in empirical research on the optimal number of response options.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - Other (471)
- Improved Dialogue Features in Web Surveys?; 2013; Lund, K.
- Research Intentions are Nothing without Technology: Mixed-Method Web Surveys and the Coberen Wall of...; 2013; Ganassali, S., Rodriguez-Santos, C.
- Reducing Response Burden for Enterprises Combining Methods for Data Collection on the Internet; 2013; Vik, T.
- Measuring Wages Worldwide: Exploring the Potentials and Constraints of Volunteer Web Surveys; 2013; Steinmetz, S., Raess, D., Tijdens, K., de Pedraza, P.
- Data Quality in PC and Mobile Web Surveys; 2013; Mavletova, A. M.
- PDAs in socio-economic surveys: instrument bias, surveyor bias or both?; 2013; Escobal, J., Benites, S.
- Virtual research assistants: Replacing human interviewers by automated avatars in virtual worlds; 2013; Hasler, B. S., Tuchman, P., Friedman, D.
- Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study...; 2013; Morgan, A. J., Jorm, A. F., Mackinnon, A. J.
- Challenges for Researchers Investigating Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Intentions of Young Women Living...; 2013; Herbert, D. L., Loxton, D., Bateson, D., Weisberg, E., Lucke, J. C.
- Using a web-based survey tool to undertake a Delphi study: Application for nurse education research; 2013; Gill, F. J., Leslie, G. D., Grech, C., Latour, J. M.
- Comparison of web-based versus paper-and-pencil administration of a humor survey; 2013; Wang, C.-C., Cheng, C.-L.;, Liu, K.-S., Cheng, Y.-Y.
- Large-Scale Analysis and Testing; 2013; Cao, M., Zhang, Q.
- Askito: An open source Web questionnaire tool; 2013; Reips, U. -D., Heilmann, T.
- Measurement invariance and quality of composite scores in a face-to-face and a web survey; 2013; Revilla, M.
- 'Ready to complete the survey on Facebook': Web 2.0 as a research tool in business studies; 2013; Gregori, A., Baltar, F.
- Surveying “difficult-to-sample” backpackers through Facebook? Employing a mixed-mode dual...; 2013; Morris Paris, C.
- A comparison of data quality and practicality of online versus postal questionnaires in a sample of...; 2013; King, M. T., Butow, P., Olver, I., Smith, A. B.
- ISO 20252. Market, opinion and social research-Vocabulary and service requirements, 2nd Edition; 2012
- Internet use in households and by individual in 2012. Eurostat Statistics in Focus 50/2012; 2012; Seybert, H.
- Eurobarometer Special surveys: Special Eurobarometer 381; 2012
- The Impact of Academic Sponsorship on Online Survey Dropout Rates; 2012; Allen, P. J., Roberts, L. D.
- Social media as a data collection tool: the impact of Facebook in behavioural research; 2012; Zoppos, E.
- An Empirical Investigation of the Role of the Email Contact in Web Survey Response Rates; 2012; Hsu, H.-Y., Lai, Y.-H., Chin, H.-Y.
- Mode and non-response effects and their treatment; 2012; Chrysanthopoulos, S., Georgostathi, A.
- What can be said about quality in the Central Population Register based on a self-completion survey...; 2012; Falnes-Dalheim, E., Pedersen, H. E.
- Boosting Web pick-up Rates by referring to Compliance Principles ; 2012; Falnes-Dalheim, E., Haraldsen, G., Sundvoll, A.
- Subjective Well-being Of Spanish Workers: Continuous Voluntary Web Survey Examination; 2012; de Pedraza, P., Guzi, M.
- Facing The Future Webcams as a survey tool in China; 2012; Gordon, A., Llewellyn, T., Gu, E.
- Research in the Mobile Mindset: Exploring the unexplored in the mobile research space; 2012; Willems, A., Veris, E., Verhaeghe, A.
- Reality check in the digital age: The relationship between what we ask and what people actually do; 2012; Hofmeyr, J., Louw, A.
- WEBDATANET: web-based data-collection methodological challenges, solutions and implementations. Action...; 2012; de Pedraza, P.
- WebSM Study: Survey software features overview ; 2012; Vehovar, V.; Cehovin, G.; Kavcic, L.; Lenar, J.
- Reaching and Hearing the Invisible: Organizational Research on Invisible Stigmatized Groups via Web...; 2012; Trau, R. N. C., Haertel, C. E. J., Haertel, G. F.
- Response rates in three opinion surveys performed through online questionnaires in the health setting...; 2012; Aerny Perreten, N., Domínguez-Berjón, M. F., Astray Mochales, J., Esteban-Vasallo, M. D., Blanco Ancos...
- Use of Web 2.0 to Recruit Australian Gay Men to an Online HIV/AIDS Survey; 2012; Theriault, N., Bi, P., Hiller, J. E., Nor, M.
- Evaluation of an online (opt-in) panel for public participation geographic information systems surveys...; 2012; Brown, G., Weber, D., Zanon, D., de Bie, K.
- Studying Migrants with the Help of the Internet: Methods from Psychology; 2012; Reips, U. -D., Buffardi, L.
- Measures of Data Quality Across the RDD Frames; 2012; Lavrakas, P. J.
- Collecting data electronically from enterprises – searching for the right approach; 2012; Keating, J., Portillo, S.
- Psychometric properties of an internet administered version of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability...; 2012; Vesteinsdottir, V., Reips, U. -D., Joinson, A. N., Porsdottir, F.
- Analysis of coverage bias for the implementation of web surveys in Spain; 2012; de Pedraza, P., Serrano, F.
- Presidential Elections in Iceland 2012 – Did online panel surveys give false hope to new candidates...; 2012; Jonsdottir, G. A., Dofradottir, A. G., Bjornsdottir, A. E.
- Website exit surveys. What can we measure with them?; 2012; Andreadis, I.
- Comparison of response rates and cost-effectiveness for a community-based survey: postal, internet and...; 2012; Sinclair, M., O'Toole, J., Malawaraarachchi, M., Leder, K.
- Online Questionnaire Data Analysis System (OQDAS); 2012; Ali, A. Q.
- Analyzing Functionalities for Online Questionnaire System (OQS); 2012; Atown, H. Y.
- Mixed Mode Survey Design: Mode Effect Problem; 2012; Sztabinski, F., Zmijewska-Jedrzejczyk, T.
- Sample Survey on Sensitive Topics: Investigating Respondents’ Understanding and Trust in Alternative...; 2012; De Schrijver, A.
- Bringing data from an online survey or spreadsheet into SPSS; 2012; Raftery, D.
- A Comparison of the Quality of Questions in a Face-to-face and a Web Survey; 2012; Revilla, M., Saris, W. E.