Web Survey Bibliography
Effects of number of response options in web surveys: The role of verbal labels
Relevance and research question: Fully labelled agree/disagree rating scales are often used to obtain data pertaining to subjective phenomena in web surveys. Although the link between the number of response options and the quality of information obtained with rating scales is well established, the role of the verbal labels attached to the options is less well studied. The verbal lables define the length and the fineness of a fully labelled rating scale and adding response options may therefore either lengthen the scale and/or make it finer. The aim of the present work it to examine the impact of altering the number and verbal labels of response options on the quality of the information obtained. Fully labelled rating scales with five, seven and nine response options are examined. Verbal labels are either used to lengthen the scales or to make them finer.
Method and data: University students in Germany and Iceland were presented with six questions measuring attitude towards university education in a web survey. Respondents were randomly assigned to six experimental conditions. 1) Five response options with the labels strongly, somewhat and neither/nor, 2) five response options with the lables fully, somewhat and neither nor, 3) seven options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat and neither nor, 4) seven response options with the labels strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor, 5) seven response options with the labels fully, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor and finally 6) nine response options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor.
Results: The results show that the effect of the number of response options on the quality of the information obtained depends on whehter the added response options lengthen the scale or make it finer. A finer scale seems to reduce non-differentiation and extreme response style.
Added value: The findings show that the verbal labels attached to the response options must be taken into account in empirical research on the optimal number of response options.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - Usability, HCI (499)
- The challenge of a mixed-mode design survey and new IT tools application: the case of the Italian Structure...; 2013; Cardinaleschi, S., De Santis, S., Rocci, F., Spinelli, V.
- Internet as a new source of information for the production of official statistics. Experiences of Statistics...; 2013; Heerschap, N.
- Web panel surveys – can they be designed and used in a scientifically sound way?; 2013; Svensson , J.
- Web Panels for Official Statistics? ; 2013; Bethlehem, J., Cobben, F.
- How Does Online Survey Mode Affect Answers to Customer Feedback Loyalty Surveys?; 2013; Gupta, A., Lee, J.
- Using Internet Panel Surveys for Behavioral Health Surveillance; 2013; Gotway Crawford, C., Okoro, C. A., Dhingra, S., Akcin, H., Zhao, G., Ford, D., Pierannunzi, C.
- Model-Based Mode of Data Collection Switching from Internet to Mail in the American Community Survey; 2013; Chesnut, J.
- Proceedings of The 3rd International Conference: Quantitative And Qualitative Methodologies In The Economic...; 2013; Frangos, C. (ed.)
- Telephone Versus Internet Administration of Self-Report Measures of Social Anxiety, Depressive Symptoms...; 2013; Hedman, E., Ljótsson, B., Blom, K., El Alaoui, S., Kraepelien, M., Rück, C., Andersson, G., Svanborg...
- Development of a Questionnaire and Cross-Sectional Survey of Patient eHealth Readiness and eHealth Inequalities...; 2013; Jones, R.
- Assessment of Diet and Physical Activity of Brazilian Schoolchildren: Usability Testing of a Web-Based...; 2013; da Costa, F. F., Pacheco Schmoelz, C., Fernandes Davies, V., Di Pietro, P. F., Kupek, E., de Assis,...
- Economic valuation in Web surveys; A review of the state of the art and best practices; 2013; Menegaki, A. N., Tsagarakis, K. P.
- Utilization of High-Technology to Collect Health Risk Assessment Information from Medicare Members:...; 2013; Freedman, D., VanderHorst, N.
- Beyond Satisfaction Questionnaires: “Hacking” the Online Survey; 2013; Evans, A. L.
- Use of mobile devices to answer online surveys: implications for research; 2013; Cunningham, J. A., Neighbors, C., Bertholet, N., Hendershot, C. S.
- Reconceptualizing Survey Representativeness for Evaluating and Using Nonprobability Samples; 2013; Fan, D. P.
- To Click, Type, or Drag? Evaluating Speed of Survey Data Input Methods; 2013; Husser, J. A., Husser, J. A.
- Web psychosocial surveys in cancer survivorship - a methodological note; 2013; Santin, O., Mills, M., Treanor, C., Mc Donald, G., Donnelly, M.
- The Gamification of Marketing Researc; 2013; Donato, P., Link, M. W.
- Multimode, Global Scale Usage: Understanding respondent scale usage across borders and devices; 2013; Pettit, F. A., Courtright, M.
- Doing real time research: Opportunities and challenges; 2013; Back, L., Lury, C., Zimmer, R.
- ‘Digital Methods as Mainstream Methodology’: Building capacity in the research community...; 2013; Roberts, S., Hine, C., Morey, Y., Snee, H., Watson, H.
- The impact of website content dimension and e-trust on e-marketing effectiveness: The case of Iranian...; 2013; Rahimnia, F., Farzaneh Hassanzadeh, J.
- Mobilizing your Branded Panel: Panel data quality during the smartphone transition; 2013; Kugel, C., Brien, D., Blechman, J.
- An Examination of the Relationship Between Pretest Method Results and Data Quality; 2013; Maitland, A.
- The Attention Span of a Goldfish: Impacts of Survey Mobilization on Respondents ; 2013; Luck, K.
- Adding Observation to Copy Testing with Kids; 2013; Hurley, B., Salo, M.
- Phish Rising: How Internet Criminals are Undermining the Viability of Online Survey Research…and...; 2013; Kunovic, K.
- Classifying Mouse Movements and Providing Help in Web Surveys; 2013; Horwitz, R.
- Video Interviewing: An Exploration of the Feasibility as a Mode of Survey Application; 2013; Jeannis, M., Terry, T. L., Heman-Ackah, R., Price, M.
- Filling the Void: Gaining a Better Understanding of Tablet-based Surveys; 2013; Wells, T., Bailey, J., Link, M. W.
- Old versus New: The Comparative Efficiency of Mail and Internet Surveys of State Legislators.; 2013; Fisher, S. H., Herrick, R.
- The Online Statistical Survey As An Alternative To Traditional Methods; 2013; Dinu, S., Nitoiu, M., Pomazan, C.
- Survey Sidekick: Learning & designing scientifically sound surveys; 2013; Hsiao, I.-H., Malhotra, M., Joo, J., Chae, H. S., Natriello, G.
- Scientific impact of the MESS Project: A brief overview; 2013; Das, M.
- Current UK provision of web panaels and Omnibus; 2013; Lagorio, C.
- Feasibility of Using Web to Survey at a Sample of Addresses: a UK ESS experiment; 2013; Villar, A.
- Recent Experiences with Electronic Questionnaire Testing at Statistics Canada ; 2013; Lawrence, D.
- Usability and Accessibility Guidelines for Web Sites and Web Surveys ; 2013; Ashenfelter, K. T.
- Questionnaire development & testing in the 21st century: What are the challenges?; 2013; Collins, D.
- Improved Dialogue Features in Web Surveys?; 2013; Lund, K.
- New Versus Old Technologies: An Examination of Usability and Cognitive Issues Across Modes Among Respondents...; 2013; Nichols, E. M., Goerman, P. L., Jurgenson, N., King, T., Olmsted, M. G., Childs, J. H.
- The Effect of Differential Mailing Methodologies on Response Rates: Testing Advanced Notices, Pre-Recorded...; 2013; Pens, Y., Cantave, M. A., Gentry, R. J.
- Augmenting Paper Diaries With Phone and Web Data Retrieval: Is it Effective?; 2013; Wargelin, L., Minser, J., Homer, Z., Fleeman, A., ZuWallack, R. S.
- The Effect of Survey Mode on Socially Undesirable Responses to Open Ended Questions: Online vs. Paper...; 2013; Hedberg, E., Ceasar, G., Wallace, D.
- Mode Choice on an iPhone Increases Survey Data Quality; 2013; Conrad, F. G., Schober, M. F., Zhang, C., Yan, H. G., Vickers, L., Johnston, M., Hupp, A., Hemingway...
- Online Survey Participation via Mobile Devices: Findings From Seven Access Panel Studies; 2013; Bosnjak, M., Poggio, T., Funke, F.
- Effects of Respondent Reluctance, Mode, and Technical Difficulties on Straight- Lining and Refusals...; 2013; Gibson, J. L., Mendelson, J.
- The Relations Among Different Cognitive Shortcuts in Surveys; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Medway, R., Presser, S.
- Demonstration of an Integrated Respondent Management and Data Collection Tool for Mixed-Mode (Phone/...; 2013; Luxenberg, H., Rainey, J.