Web Survey Bibliography
Effects of number of response options in web surveys: The role of verbal labels
Relevance and research question: Fully labelled agree/disagree rating scales are often used to obtain data pertaining to subjective phenomena in web surveys. Although the link between the number of response options and the quality of information obtained with rating scales is well established, the role of the verbal labels attached to the options is less well studied. The verbal lables define the length and the fineness of a fully labelled rating scale and adding response options may therefore either lengthen the scale and/or make it finer. The aim of the present work it to examine the impact of altering the number and verbal labels of response options on the quality of the information obtained. Fully labelled rating scales with five, seven and nine response options are examined. Verbal labels are either used to lengthen the scales or to make them finer.
Method and data: University students in Germany and Iceland were presented with six questions measuring attitude towards university education in a web survey. Respondents were randomly assigned to six experimental conditions. 1) Five response options with the labels strongly, somewhat and neither/nor, 2) five response options with the lables fully, somewhat and neither nor, 3) seven options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat and neither nor, 4) seven response options with the labels strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor, 5) seven response options with the labels fully, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor and finally 6) nine response options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor.
Results: The results show that the effect of the number of response options on the quality of the information obtained depends on whehter the added response options lengthen the scale or make it finer. A finer scale seems to reduce non-differentiation and extreme response style.
Added value: The findings show that the verbal labels attached to the response options must be taken into account in empirical research on the optimal number of response options.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - Fuchs, M. (47)
- Using Eye Tracking Data to Understand Respondent's Processing of Rating Scales; 2013; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Dynamic Visual Design for List-Style Open-Ended Questions in Web Surveys; 2013; Fuchs, M.
- Using interactive feedback to enhance response quality in Web surveys. The case of open-ended questions...; 2013; Emde, M., Fuchs, M.
- Reducing Response Order Effects in Check-All-That-Apply Questions by Use of Dynamic Tooltip Instructions...; 2013; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Improving RDD Cell Phone Samples. Evaluation of Different Pre-call Validation Methods; 2012; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Positioning of Clarification Features in Web Surveys: Evidence from Eye Tracking Data; 2012; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Using Adaptive Questionnaire Design in Open-ended Questions: A Fieldexperimental Study on the Size of...; 2012; Fuchs, M., Emde, M.
- Effects of number of response options in web surveys: The role of verbal labels; 2012; Thorsdottir, F., Fuchs, M., Jonsdottir, J.
- Effects of Static versus Dynamic Formatting Instructions for Open-Ended Numerical Questions in Web Surveys...; 2012; Kunz, T., Fuchs, M.
- Exploring Animated Faces Scales in Web Surveys: Drawbacks and Prospects; 2012; Emde, M., Fuchs, M.
- Video enhanced web survey; 2011; Fuchs, M., Kunz, T., Gebhard, F.
- Addressing Panel Attrition in Mobile Phone Panel Surveys: Can Incentives and Switching to Mobile Web...; 2011; Busse, B., Fuchs, M.
- Mobile-only – Persistent status or passage in the life course? Results from a Mobile Phone Panel...; 2011; Busse, B., Fuchs, M., Neuert, C.
- Exploring Visual Design Effects In Web Survey Questions. An Experimental Study Using Animated Answer...; 2011; Emde, M., Fuchs, M.
- The Coverage Bias of Mobile Web Surveys; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- The Coverage Bias of Mobile Web Surveys Across European Countries ; 2009; Fuchs, M., Busse, B.
- Are people sharing their mobile phones? Selection probabilities in cellular telephone surveys; 2009; Fuchs, M., Busse, B.
- Is a cell phone really a personal device? Results from the first wave of a mobile phone panel on sharing...; 2009; Fuchs, M., Busse, B.
- Are Respondents Sharing their Mobile Phones? Preliminary results based on a mobile phone panel in Germany...; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- Dynamic feedback in open-ended questions: Experiments on the visual design language of Web surveys; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- The relative coverage bias caused by the mobile-only population across Europe; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- The Video-Enhanced Web Survey Data Quality and Cognitive Processing of Questions; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- Gender-of-Interviewer Effects in a Video-Enhanced Web Survey: Results from a Randomized Field Experiment...; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- Differences in the Visual Design Language of Paper-and-Pencil Surveys Versus Web Surveys A Field Experimental...; 2009; Fuchs, M.
- Mobile web surveys: A preliminary discussion of methodological implications; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Response Effects in Video-enhanced Web Surveys; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- The relative Coverage Error in Telephone Surveys caused by Mobile-Only Populations across Europe; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Communicative Channels, Cognitive Processes and Question Understanding: Results from a Randomized Field...; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Gender-of-Interviewer Effects in Video-Enhanced Web Surveys. Results from a Randomized Field-Experiment...; 2008; Fuchs, M.
- Using Audio and Video Clips in Web Surveys — Feasibility and Impact on Data Quality; 2007; Fuchs, M., Funke, F.
- Video Web Surveys: Results from field-experimental comparisons with text-based Web surveys; 2007; Fuchs, M., Funke, F.
- Asking for Numbers and Quantities: Visual Design Effects in Web Surveys and Paper and Pencil Surveys; 2007; Fuchs, M.
- Nonresponse and Measurement Error in Mobile Phone Surveys; 2006; Fuchs, M.
- Online student feedback surveys. Methodological issues in comparison to the traditional classroom survey...; 2005; Fuchs, M.
- Kognitive Prozesse und Antwortverhalten in einer Internet-Befragung; 2003; Fuchs, M.
- Item Non-Response Reminder in a Web Survey; 2003; Fuchs, M.
- Methodological Issues in Mobile Phone Surveys; 2003; Vehovar, V., Batagelj, Z., Callegaro, M., Fuchs, M., Kuusela, V.
- Cognitive Processes in Web Surveys; 2003; Fuchs, M.
- Cognitive processes when answering online questionnaires; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- Comparing Web Surveys and Paper & Pencil Surveys: Measurement Error and Mode Differences; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- Paper and Pencil versus Web Survey. Measurement Effects and Mode Differences; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- Cognitive processes in Web Surveys; 2002; Fuchs, M.
- Screen Design in a Web Survey; 2001; Fuchs, M.
- Length of Input Field and the Responses Provided in a Self-Administrated Survey: A Comparison of a Paper...; 2001; Fuchs, M., Couper, M. P.
- Technology Effects: Do CAPI or PAPI Interviews Take Longer?; 2000; Fuchs, M., Couper, M. P., Hansen, S. E.
- Technology effects: Interview duration in CAPI and paper and pencil surveys; 2000; Fuchs, M., Couper, M. P., Hansen, S. E.
- Screen Design and Question Order in a CAI Instrument Effects on Interviewers and Respondents; 1999; Fuchs, M.