Web Survey Bibliography
Effects of number of response options in web surveys: The role of verbal labels
Relevance and research question: Fully labelled agree/disagree rating scales are often used to obtain data pertaining to subjective phenomena in web surveys. Although the link between the number of response options and the quality of information obtained with rating scales is well established, the role of the verbal labels attached to the options is less well studied. The verbal lables define the length and the fineness of a fully labelled rating scale and adding response options may therefore either lengthen the scale and/or make it finer. The aim of the present work it to examine the impact of altering the number and verbal labels of response options on the quality of the information obtained. Fully labelled rating scales with five, seven and nine response options are examined. Verbal labels are either used to lengthen the scales or to make them finer.
Method and data: University students in Germany and Iceland were presented with six questions measuring attitude towards university education in a web survey. Respondents were randomly assigned to six experimental conditions. 1) Five response options with the labels strongly, somewhat and neither/nor, 2) five response options with the lables fully, somewhat and neither nor, 3) seven options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat and neither nor, 4) seven response options with the labels strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor, 5) seven response options with the labels fully, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor and finally 6) nine response options with the labels fully, strongly, somewhat, slightly and neither/nor.
Results: The results show that the effect of the number of response options on the quality of the information obtained depends on whehter the added response options lengthen the scale or make it finer. A finer scale seems to reduce non-differentiation and extreme response style.
Added value: The findings show that the verbal labels attached to the response options must be taken into account in empirical research on the optimal number of response options.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography (6332)
- Surveys on Mobile Devices: Opportunities and Challenges; 2013; Couper, M. P.
- Measurement effects in mixed-mode panel surveys; 2013; Lugtig, P. J.
- Life history calendars - a viable method for web-based data collection?; 2013; Glasner, T., van der Vaart, W.
- Measurement issues in web surveys: An overview of opportunities and challenges; 2013; Calderwood, L.
- Experiences from a probability-based Internet panel: Sample, recruitment and participation; 2013; Scherpenzeel, A.
- Participation and engagement in web surveys of the general population: An overview of challenges and...; 2013; Roberts, C.
- Using Web Survey Panels to Estimate Population Characteristics: A Comparison of Alternative Approaches...; 2013; Rivers, D.
- Online Research, Game On!; 2013; Puleston, J.
- The ONS Beyond 2011 Programme & possible implications for social surveys; 2013; Morris, L.
- Issues of Coverage and Sampling in Web Surveys for the General Population: An Overview; 2013; Lynn, P.
- Use of a Social Networking Web Site for Recruiting Canadian Youth for Medical Research; 2013; Chu, J. L., Snider, C. E.
- Comparison of web-based versus paper-and-pencil administration of a humor survey; 2013; Wang, C.-C., Cheng, C.-L.;, Liu, K.-S., Cheng, Y.-Y.
- The Design of Grids in Web Surveys; 2013; Couper, M. P., Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Zhang, C.
- The smartphone in survey research: experiments for time use data; 2013; Fernee, H., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Survey Research; 2013; Abbott, M. L., McKinney, J.
- Understanding and Applying Research Design; 2013; Abbott, M. L., McKinney, J.
- Large-Scale Analysis and Testing; 2013; Cao, M., Zhang, Q.
- The Science of Web Surveys; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- How to create online questionnaires: A beginner's guide to survey design for businesses and students...; 2013; Lipscomb, L.
- True experimental data collection on the Internet; 2013; Reips, U. -D., Krantz, J. H.
- Virtual Research Methods; 2013; Hine, C.
- Askito: An open source Web questionnaire tool; 2013; Reips, U. -D., Heilmann, T.
- Informed Consent for Web Paradata Use; 2013; Couper, M. P., Singer, E.
- Measurement invariance and quality of composite scores in a face-to-face and a web survey; 2013; Revilla, M.
- Exploring Response Differences between Face-to-Face and Web Surveys: A Qualitative Comparative Analysis...; 2013; Bennink, M., Moors, G., Gelissen, J.
- 'Ready to complete the survey on Facebook': Web 2.0 as a research tool in business studies; 2013; Gregori, A., Baltar, F.
- Surveying “difficult-to-sample” backpackers through Facebook? Employing a mixed-mode dual...; 2013; Morris Paris, C.
- The Use of Mixed Methods in Organizational Communication Research; 2013; Salem, P. J.
- The Use of E-Questionnaires in Organizational Surveys; 2013; Brender-Ilan, Y., Vinitzky, G.
- Online Instruments, Data Collection, and Electronic Measurements: Organizational Advancements; 2013; Bocarnea, M. C., Reynolds, R. A., Baker, J. D.
- Convenient yet not a convenience sample: Jury pools as experimental subject pools; 2013; Murray, G. R., Rugeley, C. R., Mitchell, D.-G., Mondak, J. J.
- The equivalence of Internet versus paper-based surveys in IT/IS adoption research in collectivistic...; 2013; Fang, J., Wen, C., Prybutok, V.
- Examining the Gender Effects of Different Incentive Amounts in a Web Survey; 2013; Boulianne, S. J.
- Online Survey Software; 2013; Baker, J. D.
- Mode Effects in Free-list Elicitation: Comparing Oral, Written, and Web-based Data Collection; 2013; Gravlee, C. C., Bernard, H. R., R., Jacobsohn, A., R.Maxwell, C. R.
- Incentives for college student participation in web-based substance use surveys; 2013; Patrick, M. E., Singer, E., Boyd, C. J., Cranford, J. A., McCabe, S. E.
- The effect of short formative diagnostic web quizzes with minimal feedback; 2013; Baelter, O., Enstroem, E., Klingenberg, B.
- Increasing Web Survey Response Rates in Innovation Research: An Experimental Study of Static and Dynamic...; 2013; Sauermann, H.; Roach, M.
- Sample composition discrepancies in different stages of a probability-based online panel; 2013; Bosnjak, M., Haas, I., Galesic, M., Kaczmirek, L., Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P.
- Survey of Cloud Computing; 2013; Furht, B.
- A comparison of data quality and practicality of online versus postal questionnaires in a sample of...; 2013; King, M. T., Butow, P., Olver, I., Smith, A. B.
- Up Means Good: The Impact of Screen Position on Evaluative Ratings in Web Surveys.; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Conrad, F. G., Couper, M. P.
- Tracking preference expression (DNT); 2012
- The smartphone psychology manifesto; 2012; Miller, G.
- The rise of the "connected viewer"; 2012; Smith, A., Boyles, J. L.
- The practice of social research; 2012; Babbie, E. R.
- The integration of facebook into class management: an exploratory study; 2012; Chou, P. N.
- The effects of item saliency and question design on measurement error in a self-administered survey; 2012; Stern, M. J., Smyth, J. D., Mendez, J.
- The cross platform report. Q2 -2012 - US; 2012
- Speed (necessarily) doesn’t kill: A new way to detect survey satisficing; 2012; Garland, P. et al.