Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question:
The usage of incentives is a widely accepted measure in survey business to enhance response rates. The impact of incentives is extensively tested in the context of mail survey and interviewer mediated modes of data collection. Less is known about incentives in the context of panel recruitment especially for offline-recruited online panels. Furthermore most experimental studies on incentives focus on the response rate as the only outcome variable. The effect of paying respondents on the sample composition has not been given much attention. Even though there is some evidence that some groups that are usually underrepresented in surveys (e.g. low educated) are motivated by the incentive.
Methods & Data:
We conducted three experiments within a telephone recruitment interview for a probability-based online panel during January 2011 and August 2011. At the end of the interview all respondents were asked whether they are willing to join a scientific online panel and fill out online questionnaires on a monthly basis.
In the first experiment we tested conditions 1) and 2). In the second and third experiment conditions 3 through 5 were tested. The interviews of experiment 2 and 3 were conducted by two different institutes and varied in specific interview aspects.
1. 5 Euros + additional 20 Euros bonus for filling out all eight online interviews of the study
2. 10 Euros + 20 Euros bonus
3. 5 Euros, no bonus
4. 2 Euros, no bonus
5. No incentives (control)
The dependent variables are willingness to participate in the online panel, the rate of actual participation in the first online interview, and the overall response rate. The effect of incentive on sample composition is analyzed as well.
Results: First analyses show interesting results. The expected tendency that higher incentives produce higher response rates is confirmed. However, we cannot find any differences in sample composition between the experimental groups.
Added Value: The experiments shed light on usage of incentives during the panel recruitment process. It can be shown that using incentives in the second step of a multistep recruitment process has no (further) implication on panel composition.
GOR Homepage (abstract) / (presentation)
Web Survey Bibliography - Solicitations & incentives (639)
- Experiments in Obtaining Data Linkage Consent in Web Surveys ; 2013; Sakshaug, J. W., Kreuter, F.
- Should the third reminder be sent? The role of survey response timing on web survey results; 2013; Rao, K., Pennington, J.
- How incentives affect web-based survey response rates of athletic program donors; 2013; Alvarado, G., Callison, C.
- Investigating the Relationship among Prepaid Token Incentives, Response Rates, and Nonresponse Bias...; 2013; Parsons, N. L., Manierre, M. J.
- Web-Based Versus Traditional Paper Questionnaires: A Mixed-Mode Survey With a Nordic Perspective; 2013; Hohwue, L., Lyshol, H., Gissler, M., Hrafn Jonsson, S., Petzold, M., Obel, C.
- Adjusting for bias in a mixed-mode CAWI survey on University students ; 2013; Clerici, R., Giraldo, A.
- The 2012 Confirmit Annual Market Research Software Survey; 2013; Macer, T., Wilson, S.
- Using Mixed-Mode Contacts in Client Surveys: Getting More Bang for Your Buck; 2013; Israel, G. D.
- Feasibility of Using Web to Survey at a Sample of Addresses: a UK ESS experiment; 2013; Villar, A.
- The Effect of Differential Mailing Methodologies on Response Rates: Testing Advanced Notices, Pre-Recorded...; 2013; Pens, Y., Cantave, M. A., Gentry, R. J.
- The Influence of Respondent Incentives on Item Nonresponse and Measurement Error in a Web Survey; 2013; Felderer, B., Kreuter, F., Winter, J.
- Using Motivating Prompts to Increase Responses to Open-ended Questions in Mixed-mode Surveys: Where...; 2013; Israel, G. D.
- Differential Incentives in a Dual Mode Survey of Health Care Providers; 2013; Roff, B., Barrett, K.
- The Effect of Attempting to Recruit Respondents to a Web-Based Diary on Overall Response Rate; 2013; Cantave, M. A. Gentry, R. J.
- Comparisons of Online Recruitment Strategies: Craigslist, Facebook, Google Ads and Amazon’s Mechanical...; 2013; Antoun, C., Zhang, C., Conrad, F. G., Schober, M. F.
- Effects of Survey Sponsorship on Internet and Mail Response: Using Address- Based Sampling; 2013; Edwards, M. L.
- Using the iPad as a Prize-Based Incentive to Boost Response Rates: A Case Study at Brigham Young University...; 2013; McClendon, R., Olsen, D.
- Online Panels: Recruitment Based on “Hot Topics” – What are the Consequences?; 2013; Andreasson, M., Martinsson, J.
- Social Network Analysis and Survey Response: How Facebook Data Can Supplement Survey Data; 2013; Sage, A.
- Surveywalls: A Breakthrough for Survey Customers or DIY Run Amok?; 2013; Wells, T., Dean, E., Rao, K., Murphy, J., Roe, D. J.
- Evaluating the Effect of a Non-Monetary Incentive in a Nationally Representative Mixed-Mode Establishment...; 2013; Sengupta, M., Harris-Kojetin, L., Hobbs, M., Greene, A.
- Effective e-incentive for Online Study: Comparing Branded e-Gift Card and Virtual Cash Card; 2013; Jin, T., Duan, S., Lai, J. W., Link, M. W.
- First Contact Strategies for Web Surveys: Is a Phone Call or a Letter the More Effective Introduction...; 2013; Connelly, J., Sjoblom, M., Datta, R., Scholfield Hepburn, P.
- How Do Different Sampling Techniques Perform in a Web-Only Survey? Results From a Comparison of a Random...; 2013; Bilgen, I., Stern, M. J., Wolter, K.
- The Effectiveness of Mailed Invitations for Web Surveys; 2013; Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P., Kaczmirek, L.
- Examining the Feasibility of SMS as a Contact Mode for a College Student Survey; 2013; Crawford, S. D., McClain, C., O'Brien, S., Nelson, T. F.
- Survey Reminder Method Experiment: An Examination of Cost Efficiency and Reminder Mode Salience in the...; 2013; Anderson, M., Rogers, B., CyBulski, K., Hall, J. W., Alderks, C. E., Milazzo-Sayre, L.
- Using Qualitative and Quantitative Testing to Improve Hispanic Response Rates for Online Surveys; 2013; Pens, Y., Gentry, R. J.
- The Use of Email, Text Messages, and Facebook to Increase Response Rates Among Adolescents in a Longitudinal...; 2013; Fleeman, A., Francis, K., Henderson, T., Woodford, M., Jani, M.
- Use of Smart Phones/Text Messaging to Increase Response Rates; 2013; DuBray, P.
- Using Multiple Modes in Follow-Up Contacts in Random-Digit Dialing Surveys; 2013; Chowdhury, P. P.
- Impacts of Unit Nonresponse in a Recontact Study of Youth; 2013; Mendelson, J., Viera Jr., L.
- Utilizing the Web in a Multi-Mode Survey; 2013; Venkataraman, L.
- Internet Response for the Decennial Census – 2012 National Census Test; 2013; Reiser, C.
- Effects of Lotteries on Response Behavior in Online Panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Lotteries and study results in market research online panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Using Web Surveys for Psychology Experiments: A Case Study in New Media Technology for Research; 2013; Peden, B. F., Tiry , A. M.
- Sampling, Channels, and Contact Strategies in Internet Survey; 2013; Macrì, E., Tessitore, C.
- Advancing Research Methods with New Technologies; 2013; Sappleton, N.
- Using mobile devices to access the realities of youth: How identification with society influences political...; 2013; Smith, M.
- Do I Have Your Full Attention?; 2013; Cape, P. J.
- Internet-Based Recruitment to a Depression Prevention Intervention: Lessons From the Mood Memos Study...; 2013; Morgan, A. J., Jorm, A. F., Mackinnon, A. J.
- Challenges for Researchers Investigating Contraceptive Use and Pregnancy Intentions of Young Women Living...; 2013; Herbert, D. L., Loxton, D., Bateson, D., Weisberg, E., Lucke, J. C.
- Pros and cons of virtual interviewers – vote in the discussion about surveytainment; 2013; Póltorak, M., Kowalski, J.
- An Assessment of Incentive Versus Survey Length Trade-offs in a Web Survey of Radiologists; 2013; Ziegenfuss, J. Y., Niederhauser, B. D., Kallmes, D., Beebe, T. J.
- The fish model: What factors affect participants while filling in an online questionnaire?; 2013; Mohamed, B., Lorenz, A., Pscheida, D.
- The monetary value of good questionnaire design; 2013; Tress, F.
- Why are you leaving me?? - Personality predictors of answering drop out in an online-study; 2013; Thielsch, M., Nestler, S., Back, M.
- Seducing the respondent – how to optimise invitations in on-site online research?; 2013; Póltorak, M., Kowalski, J.
- E-questionnaire in cross-sectional household surveys; 2013; Karaganis, M.