Web Survey Bibliography
Item nonresponse in self-administered modes such as Web and mail can be a major problem affecting survey data quality and, in some cases, may be as severe as unit nonresponse. Moreover, little is known about the determinants of item nonresponse in Web and mail household surveys. In this paper, we assess item nonresponse differences by Web and mail modes, question types (e.g. factual, attitudinal, behavioral) and formats (e.g. nominal, ordinal, multi-item, open-end, etc.), and respondent demographics (e.g. gender, age, education, race, and income) in three general public household surveys. For the three surveys, each conducted in the northwestern U.S. in 2007, 2008, and 2009, respectively, we used address-based sampling with the U.S. Postal Service‟s Delivery Sequence File and employed postal mail methods to send all contacts. Sampled respondents in each survey were presented with a) a mail-only response option, b) a mail response option with a Web follow-up sent two weeks later (i.e. mail+web), or c) a Web response option with a mail follow-up sent two weeks later (i.e. web+mail). The Web and mail questionnaires in each survey were designed very similarly in order to minimize and control for effects from visual design and layout. This paper serves to quantify and describe item nonresponse differences and the sources of those differences, and to identify potential ways of reducing item nonresponse in Web and mail modes of data collection.
Web Survey Bibliography - Messer, B. L. (14)
- Using GIS to Target Address-Based Samples of Households for a Web (vs. Mail) Response: Evidence from...; 2013; Messer, B. L.
- Intensifying the Request: Results from an Experiment on Improving Internet Response Rates for Address...; 2012; Messer, B. L., Dillman, D. A.
- Determinants of Item Nonresponse to Web and Mail Respondents in Three Address-Based Mixed-Mode Surveys...; 2012; Messer, B. L., Edwards, M. L., Dillman, D. A.
- Online Appendix for “Surveying the General Public Over the Internet Using Address-Based Sampling...; 2011; Dillman, D. A., Messer, B. L.
- Surveying the General Public over the Internet Using Address-Based Sampling and Mail Contact Procedures...; 2011; Messer, B. L., Dillman, D. A.
- Using Address-Based Sampling and Mail Contact Methods to Obtain Web Responses from the General Public...; 2011; Dillman, D. A., Messer, B. L.
- Mixed-mode surveys; 2010; Dillman, D. A., Messer, B. L.
- Item Non-response Differences Between Web and Mail Surveys of the General Public; 2010; Dillman, D. A., Edwards, M. L., Messer, B. L., Millar, M. M.
- How to Improve Response Rates to Web Surveys: Practical Guidance Based on Theory and Experimentation; 2010; Dillman, D. A., Millar, M. M., Messer, B. L.
- Using Address Based Sampling to Survey the General Public by Mail vs. 'Web plus Mail'; 2010; Messer, B. L., Dillman, D. A.
- Improving the Effectiveness of Mail Contact Procedures to Obtain Survey Response Over the Internet for...; 2009; Messer, B. L., Dillman, D. A.
- Using Mail Contact to Sample and Encourage Submission of Questionnaire Answers Over the Internet; 2009; Dillman, D. A., Messer, B. L., Millar, M. M.
- Improving survey response in mail and internet general public surveys using address-based sampling and...; 2009; Messer, B. L.
- Response rate and measurement differences in mixed-mode surveys using mail, telephone, interactive voice...; 2009; Dillman, D. A., Phelps, G., Tortora, R. D., Swift, K., Kohrell, J., Berck, J., Messer, B. L.