Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: We study the (non)response behaviour in web surveys using paradata which offer a full insight into the questionnaire response process, allowing to observing the behaviour of respondents when going through the questionnaire. We use Bosnjak and Tuten’s (2001) classification of seven groups of web survey participants: complete responders, unit nonresponders, answering drop-outs, lurkers, lurking drop-outs, item nonresponderns and item non-responding drop-outs. This classification is important for understanding the web survey process and to develop standardized response metrics to measure web survey (non)response rates.
Methods & Data: We applied above classification to study the behaviour of respondents in a sample of 50 surveys selected out of more than 2,000 web surveys, hosted by a web survey service at our University. Participants were classified into seven categories based on the available paradata. These include time stamps, information on participants' equipment, data on how many pages of the questionnaire were viewed and how many responses given by each respondent before quitting the survey. We develop a methodology how to use paradata to classify units into the 7 categories. A two-level statistical analysis is then performed on collected data taking into account the level of individual respondents and the level of the survey.
Results: We show that classifying participants into several response categories and study their characteristics allow better insight into the survey response process. We also show which characteristics of participants (better equipment) and which characteristics of survey design (length, topic) influence certain response behavior.
Added Value: Studying several surveys with a meta-analytical approach and performing a two-level statistical analysis is relatively rare and new approach in this area. It provides precious insight into how the survey characteristics influence the behavior. Based on that, new knowledge is generated about tailoring the questionnaire design so to minimize various types of nonresponse behaviour. In addition, results enable to propose improvements of the seven group classification scheme.
Conference Homepage (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Nonresponse (1971)
- Evaluation of a Sequential Mixed-Mode Design Experiment with Physicians on Response Rates, Costs, and...; 2013; Geisen, E., Olmsted, M. G., Murphy, J., Stanley, M.
- Factors Influencing Survey Participation Rates on an Online, Probability-Based Research Panel; 2013; Wiest, D.
- The Effect of Differential Mailing Methodologies on Response Rates: Testing Advanced Notices, Pre-Recorded...; 2013; Pens, Y., Cantave, M. A., Gentry, R. J.
- The Influence of Respondent Incentives on Item Nonresponse and Measurement Error in a Web Survey; 2013; Felderer, B., Kreuter, F., Winter, J.
- Eliminate Item Non-Response: The Effect of Forcing Respondents to Answer in Web Surveys; 2013; Leach, L. M.
- The Influence of Answer Box Format, Personal Topic Interest, and Respondent Characteristics on Response...; 2013; Keusch, F.
- Using Motivating Prompts to Increase Responses to Open-ended Questions in Mixed-mode Surveys: Where...; 2013; Israel, G. D.
- How Open Are We to the Open-Ended Questions?; 2013; Mamedova, S.
- Panel Attrition: Separating Stayers, Sleepers and Other Types of Drop-Out in an Internet Panel; 2013; Lugtig, P. J.
- Building a History: Collecting Comprehensive Employment Data in a Web-Based, Multi-Mode Survey; 2013; Cominole, M., Bennett, C., Caves, L.
- Mode Effects in a National Establishment Survey; 2013; Daley, K., Phillips, B. T.
- Mobile Browser Web Surveys: Testing Response Rates, Data Quality and Best Practices; 2013; McGeeney, K., Marlar, J.
- Comparing Tablet, Computer, and Smartphone Survey Administrations; 2013; Wells, T., Bailey, J., Link, M. W.
- Online Survey Participation via Mobile Devices: Findings From Seven Access Panel Studies; 2013; Bosnjak, M., Poggio, T., Funke, F.
- The Relations Among Different Cognitive Shortcuts in Surveys; 2013; Tourangeau, R., Medway, R., Presser, S.
- Suppressing Survey Response: Further Evidence to Not Use Web Instruction Cards; 2013; Puniello, O. T., Weiner, M., Noland, R. B.
- Differential Incentives in a Dual Mode Survey of Health Care Providers; 2013; Roff, B., Barrett, K.
- The Effect of Attempting to Recruit Respondents to a Web-Based Diary on Overall Response Rate; 2013; Cantave, M. A. Gentry, R. J.
- Web Versus Outbound: A Mode Face-Off Following the Presidential Debate; 2013; Marlar, J.
- Examining Response Time Outliers Though Paradata in Online Panel Surveys; 2013; Lee, J., Al Baghal, T.
- Innovative Retention Methods in Panel Research: Can SmartPhones Improve Long-Term Panel Participation...; 2013; Dayton, J. J., Dyer, A.
- Predicting Survey Breakoff in Internet Survey Panels; 2013; Al Baghal, T., McCutcheon, A. L., Tsabutashvili, D.
- Using GIS to Target Address-Based Samples of Households for a Web (vs. Mail) Response: Evidence from...; 2013; Messer, B. L.
- Is Pushing the General Public to the Web in Address-Based Samples Cost Effective?; 2013; Lesser, V. M.
- Effects of Survey Sponsorship on Internet and Mail Response: Using Address- Based Sampling; 2013; Edwards, M. L.
- Using the iPad as a Prize-Based Incentive to Boost Response Rates: A Case Study at Brigham Young University...; 2013; McClendon, R., Olsen, D.
- Examining the Effects of Interventions to Obtain Participation via Less Expensive Modes: Results from...; 2013; Harris-Kojetin, L., Sengupta, M., Hobbs, M., Greene, A.
- Evaluating the Effect of a Non-Monetary Incentive in a Nationally Representative Mixed-Mode Establishment...; 2013; Sengupta, M., Harris-Kojetin, L., Hobbs, M., Greene, A.
- Evaluating Interactive Feedback in Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (CASI); 2013; Hudson, M. L., Hupp, A., Zhang, C., Schroeder, H. M.
- Effective e-incentive for Online Study: Comparing Branded e-Gift Card and Virtual Cash Card; 2013; Jin, T., Duan, S., Lai, J. W., Link, M. W.
- First Contact Strategies for Web Surveys: Is a Phone Call or a Letter the More Effective Introduction...; 2013; Connelly, J., Sjoblom, M., Datta, R., Scholfield Hepburn, P.
- The Effect of Survey Mode on Nonresponse Bias and Measurement Error: A Validation Approach; 2013; Kirchner, A., Felderer, B.
- Are Response Rates to a Web-Only Survey Spatially Clustered?; 2013; Fiorio, L., Stern, M. J., English, N., Bilgen, I., Curtis, B.
- The Impact on Web Survey Drop-Out Rates of Page Number Progress Indicators Used Throughout, Near the...; 2013; Walston, J. T., Cunningham, B., Medway, R.
- Survey Reminder Method Experiment: An Examination of Cost Efficiency and Reminder Mode Salience in the...; 2013; Anderson, M., Rogers, B., CyBulski, K., Hall, J. W., Alderks, C. E., Milazzo-Sayre, L.
- Using Qualitative and Quantitative Testing to Improve Hispanic Response Rates for Online Surveys; 2013; Pens, Y., Gentry, R. J.
- The Use of Email, Text Messages, and Facebook to Increase Response Rates Among Adolescents in a Longitudinal...; 2013; Fleeman, A., Francis, K., Henderson, T., Woodford, M., Jani, M.
- Use of Smart Phones/Text Messaging to Increase Response Rates; 2013; DuBray, P.
- Potential Impact of Modifying the Fielding Time of a Web-Based Survey; 2013; Baum, H. M., Chandonnet, A.
- Using Multiple Modes in Follow-Up Contacts in Random-Digit Dialing Surveys; 2013; Chowdhury, P. P.
- Tablets and Smartphones and Netbooks, Oh My! Effects of Device Type on Respondent Behavior; 2013; Ross, H., Mendelson, J., Lackey, M.
- Impacts of Unit Nonresponse in a Recontact Study of Youth; 2013; Mendelson, J., Viera Jr., L.
- Multi-Mode Survey Administration: Does Offering Multiple Modes at Once Depress Response Rates?; 2013; Newsome, J., Levin, K., Langetieg, P., Vigil, M., Sebastiani, M.
- Responsive Design for Web Panel Data Collection; 2013; Bianchi, A., Biffignandi, S.
- Utilizing the Web in a Multi-Mode Survey; 2013; Venkataraman, L.
- Changing to a Mixed-Mode Design: The Role of Mode in Respondents’ Decisions About Participation...; 2013; Collins, D., Mitchell, M., Toomes, M.
- Comparing the Effects of Mode Design on Response Rate, Representativeness, and Cost Per Complete in...; 2013; Tully, R.
- Internet Response for the Decennial Census – 2012 National Census Test; 2013; Reiser, C.
- The Effects of Pushing Web in a Mixed-Mode Establishment Data Collection; 2013; Ellis, C.
- Effects of Lotteries on Response Behavior in Online Panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.