Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: Web surveys of the general population are suspected to yield less representative samples than traditional survey modes for two major reasons. First, population coverage with internet access is incomplete in most countries. Second, response rates to Web surveys are generally lower than in traditional modes. Sequential mixed-mode strategies using personal (CAPI) or telephone (CATI) interviews have been suggested to cope with the presumed representativity problem. In this study we assess the underlying assumptions of this reasoning, i.e., first, whether a probability sample using Web for data collection is less representative than other modes and, second, whether CAPI or CATI possess properties that can compensate for bias when added in sequence to Web.
Methods & Data: We conducted an experiment based on a national probability sample of 8,800 persons in the context of the Dutch ‘Security Monitor’ survey. Persons were assigned to one out of four modes (Web, Mail, CATI, CAPI). Mailed invitations contained a link (Web), a questionnaire (Mail), or announced the contact by an interviewer (CAPI/CATI). After 4-8 weeks we approached every person again in a second wave, either by CAPI or CATI. We included questions on internet coverage in this wave. To assess representativity, background data was available from national registries.
Results: Though The Netherlands are a country of high internet coverage, the impact of under-coverage on representativity was strong (assessed by R-indicators). However, many of the coverage deficits were mitigated in the process of contact and cooperation. The final Web response sample was as representative as CAPI and even more representative than CATI and Mail. Mixing modes in sequence (i.e. Web followed by CAPI or CAPI+CATI) was not capable of compensating the deficits of Web beyond well-known net increases in response rates.
Added Value: Our results question two basic assumptions about Web surveys and mixed-mode designs. We suggest that Web surveys possess equally good or better response properties as traditional modes, if they are based on probability samples and population coverage with internet access is high. Also, from a representativity perspective, we did not find evidence in favour of using mixed-mode designs.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Web surveys (3946)
- Using the iPad as a Prize-Based Incentive to Boost Response Rates: A Case Study at Brigham Young University...; 2013; McClendon, R., Olsen, D.
- Can Google Consumer Surveys Help Pre-Test Alternative Versions of a Survey Question?: A Comparison of...; 2013; Stern, M. J., Welch, W. W.
- Online Panels: Recruitment Based on “Hot Topics” – What are the Consequences?; 2013; Andreasson, M., Martinsson, J.
- Social Network Analysis and Survey Response: How Facebook Data Can Supplement Survey Data; 2013; Sage, A.
- Surveywalls: A Breakthrough for Survey Customers or DIY Run Amok?; 2013; Wells, T., Dean, E., Rao, K., Murphy, J., Roe, D. J.
- Examining the Effects of Interventions to Obtain Participation via Less Expensive Modes: Results from...; 2013; Harris-Kojetin, L., Sengupta, M., Hobbs, M., Greene, A.
- Evaluating the Effect of a Non-Monetary Incentive in a Nationally Representative Mixed-Mode Establishment...; 2013; Sengupta, M., Harris-Kojetin, L., Hobbs, M., Greene, A.
- Dynamic Visual Design for List-Style Open-Ended Questions in Web Surveys; 2013; Fuchs, M.
- Classifying Mouse Movements to Predict Respondent Difficulty; 2013; Horwitz, R.
- Are You Seeing What I am Seeing? Exploring Response Option Visual Design Effects With Eye-Tracking; 2013; Libman, A., Smyth, J. D., Olson, K.
- Evaluating Interactive Feedback in Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing (CASI); 2013; Hudson, M. L., Hupp, A., Zhang, C., Schroeder, H. M.
- Effective e-incentive for Online Study: Comparing Branded e-Gift Card and Virtual Cash Card; 2013; Jin, T., Duan, S., Lai, J. W., Link, M. W.
- First Contact Strategies for Web Surveys: Is a Phone Call or a Letter the More Effective Introduction...; 2013; Connelly, J., Sjoblom, M., Datta, R., Scholfield Hepburn, P.
- Response Format Effects in the Measurement of Employment; 2013; Rodkin, S., Thomas, R. K., Subias, S., Chu, C.
- Impact of Filter Questions on Estimates of Media Consumption; 2013; Cobb, C. L., Godinez, D., Thomas, R. K., Baim, J.
- The Effect of Survey Mode on Nonresponse Bias and Measurement Error: A Validation Approach; 2013; Kirchner, A., Felderer, B.
- Cross-Platform Measurement: User Experience With a Smartphone and Web Self- Reported Data Collection...; 2013; Petras, A. P., Duan, S., Dan, O.
- How Far Have We Come? The Lingering Digital Divide and Its Impact on the Representativeness of Internet...; 2013; Dennis, J. M., Cobb, C. L.
- How Do Different Sampling Techniques Perform in a Web-Only Survey? Results From a Comparison of a Random...; 2013; Bilgen, I., Stern, M. J., Wolter, K.
- Paradata in Web Surveys; 2013; Callegaro, M.
- Are Response Rates to a Web-Only Survey Spatially Clustered?; 2013; Fiorio, L., Stern, M. J., English, N., Bilgen, I., Curtis, B.
- The Effectiveness of Mailed Invitations for Web Surveys; 2013; Bandilla, W., Couper, M. P., Kaczmirek, L.
- Examining the Feasibility of SMS as a Contact Mode for a College Student Survey; 2013; Crawford, S. D., McClain, C., O'Brien, S., Nelson, T. F.
- The Impact on Web Survey Drop-Out Rates of Page Number Progress Indicators Used Throughout, Near the...; 2013; Walston, J. T., Cunningham, B., Medway, R.
- Survey Reminder Method Experiment: An Examination of Cost Efficiency and Reminder Mode Salience in the...; 2013; Anderson, M., Rogers, B., CyBulski, K., Hall, J. W., Alderks, C. E., Milazzo-Sayre, L.
- Using Qualitative and Quantitative Testing to Improve Hispanic Response Rates for Online Surveys; 2013; Pens, Y., Gentry, R. J.
- The Use of Email, Text Messages, and Facebook to Increase Response Rates Among Adolescents in a Longitudinal...; 2013; Fleeman, A., Francis, K., Henderson, T., Woodford, M., Jani, M.
- Use of Smart Phones/Text Messaging to Increase Response Rates; 2013; DuBray, P.
- Designing Surveys for Tablets and Smartphones; 2013; Lakhe, S., Nichols, E. M., Olmsted, M. G., King, T.
- Tablets as Data Entry Interfaces – Solving Data Cleaning and Transcription Issues During Data...; 2013; Costall, A.
- Effects of Response Format on Measurement of Readership; 2013; Thomas, R. K., Cobb, C. L., Baim, J.
- Potential Impact of Modifying the Fielding Time of a Web-Based Survey; 2013; Baum, H. M., Chandonnet, A.
- How Representative are Google Consumer Surveys?: Results From an Analysis of a Google Consumer Survey...; 2013; Krishnamurty, P., Tanenbaum, E., Stern, M. J.
- One Drink or Two: Does Quantity Depicted in an Image Affect Web Survey Responses?; 2013; Charoenruk, N., Stange, M.
- A Comparison Between Screen/Follow Item Format and Yes/No Item Format on a Multi-Mode Federal Survey; 2013; Hernandez,S. J., Arakelyan, S. N., Welch, V. E.
- Using Multiple Modes in Follow-Up Contacts in Random-Digit Dialing Surveys; 2013; Chowdhury, P. P.
- Tablets and Smartphones and Netbooks, Oh My! Effects of Device Type on Respondent Behavior; 2013; Ross, H., Mendelson, J., Lackey, M.
- Impacts of Unit Nonresponse in a Recontact Study of Youth; 2013; Mendelson, J., Viera Jr., L.
- Multi-Mode Survey Administration: Does Offering Multiple Modes at Once Depress Response Rates?; 2013; Newsome, J., Levin, K., Langetieg, P., Vigil, M., Sebastiani, M.
- Responsive Design for Web Panel Data Collection; 2013; Bianchi, A., Biffignandi, S.
- Utilizing the Web in a Multi-Mode Survey; 2013; Venkataraman, L.
- Changing to a Mixed-Mode Design: The Role of Mode in Respondents’ Decisions About Participation...; 2013; Collins, D., Mitchell, M., Toomes, M.
- Comparing the Effects of Mode Design on Response Rate, Representativeness, and Cost Per Complete in...; 2013; Tully, R.
- Internet Response for the Decennial Census – 2012 National Census Test; 2013; Reiser, C.
- The Effects of Pushing Web in a Mixed-Mode Establishment Data Collection; 2013; Ellis, C.
- Effects of Lotteries on Response Behavior in Online Panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Lotteries and study results in market research online panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Using Paradata to Study Response to Within-Survey Requests; 2013; Sakshaug, J. W.
- Paradata for Coverage Research ; 2013; Eckman, S.
- Online Fundraising Essentials, Second Edition; 2013; Stevenson, S. C.