Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: Web surveys of the general population are suspected to yield less representative samples than traditional survey modes for two major reasons. First, population coverage with internet access is incomplete in most countries. Second, response rates to Web surveys are generally lower than in traditional modes. Sequential mixed-mode strategies using personal (CAPI) or telephone (CATI) interviews have been suggested to cope with the presumed representativity problem. In this study we assess the underlying assumptions of this reasoning, i.e., first, whether a probability sample using Web for data collection is less representative than other modes and, second, whether CAPI or CATI possess properties that can compensate for bias when added in sequence to Web.
Methods & Data: We conducted an experiment based on a national probability sample of 8,800 persons in the context of the Dutch ‘Security Monitor’ survey. Persons were assigned to one out of four modes (Web, Mail, CATI, CAPI). Mailed invitations contained a link (Web), a questionnaire (Mail), or announced the contact by an interviewer (CAPI/CATI). After 4-8 weeks we approached every person again in a second wave, either by CAPI or CATI. We included questions on internet coverage in this wave. To assess representativity, background data was available from national registries.
Results: Though The Netherlands are a country of high internet coverage, the impact of under-coverage on representativity was strong (assessed by R-indicators). However, many of the coverage deficits were mitigated in the process of contact and cooperation. The final Web response sample was as representative as CAPI and even more representative than CATI and Mail. Mixing modes in sequence (i.e. Web followed by CAPI or CAPI+CATI) was not capable of compensating the deficits of Web beyond well-known net increases in response rates.
Added Value: Our results question two basic assumptions about Web surveys and mixed-mode designs. We suggest that Web surveys possess equally good or better response properties as traditional modes, if they are based on probability samples and population coverage with internet access is high. Also, from a representativity perspective, we did not find evidence in favour of using mixed-mode designs.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Other CASIC (534)
- Using Technology to Conduct Questionnaire Evaluations with Hard to Reach Populations ; 2013; Ridolfo, H., Ott, K.
- Mode Effects in a National Establishment Survey; 2013; Daley, K., Phillips, B. T.
- Demonstration of an Integrated Respondent Management and Data Collection Tool for Mixed-Mode (Phone/...; 2013; Luxenberg, H., Rainey, J.
- Evaluating the Effect of a Non-Monetary Incentive in a Nationally Representative Mixed-Mode Establishment...; 2013; Sengupta, M., Harris-Kojetin, L., Hobbs, M., Greene, A.
- Survey Reminder Method Experiment: An Examination of Cost Efficiency and Reminder Mode Salience in the...; 2013; Anderson, M., Rogers, B., CyBulski, K., Hall, J. W., Alderks, C. E., Milazzo-Sayre, L.
- Experiences from a probability-based Internet panel: Sample, recruitment and participation; 2013; Scherpenzeel, A.
- Using paradata to explore item-level response times in surveys; 2012; Couper, M. P., Kreuter, F.
- Specialized Tools for Measuring Past Events ; 2012; Belli, R. F.
- Modes of Data Collection; 2012; Tourangeau, R.
- Mode and non-response effects and their treatment; 2012; Chrysanthopoulos, S., Georgostathi, A.
- The World's Simplest Survey Microsimulator (WSSM); 2012; Karr, A. F., Cox, L. H.
- Latent class analysis of response inconsistencies across modes of data collection; 2012; Yan, T., Kreuter, F., Tourangeau, R.
- “I think I know what you did last summer” Improving data quality in panel surveys; 2012; Lugtig, P. J.
- A report on the Confirmit Market Research Software Survey ; 2012; Macer, T., Wilson, S.Wilson, Sheila
- Assessing the Mode-dependency of Survey Response and Non-response Bias; 2012; Klausch, L. T., Hox, J., Schouten, B.
- Using Text-to-Speech (TTS) for Audio-CASI; 2012; Couper, M. P., Kirgis, N., Buageila, S., Berglund, P.
- Cell Sample Demographics under Alternative Dual-Frame Sample Designs; 2012; Montgomery, R., Morrison, H., Zeng, W., Wolter, K., Blumberg, S. J., O'Connor, K.
- Disentangling Mode and Nonresponse Effects in the World Trade Center Health Registry; 2012; Murphy, J., Brackbill, R., Yu, S., Wu, D., Walker, D., Turner, L., Stellman, S., Miller, S., Saleska...
- Does Mode Matter? Initial Evidence from the German Longitudinal Election Study (GLES); 2012; Blumenstiel, J. E., Rossmann, J.
- The Representativity of Web Surveys of the General Population compared to Traditional Modes and Mixed...; 2012; Klausch, L. T., Schouten, B., Hox, J.
- Proposed Indicators to Assess Interviewer Performance (IP) in CATI Surveys; 2011; Laflamme, F.
- Web based CATI on Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud and VirtualBox using queXS; 2011; Zammit, A.
- Web/Cloud Based CATI Using queXS; 2011; Zammit, A.
- When Referring to Mode, Is Expressed Preference the Same as Reality?; 2011; Denk, K.
- Three Era's of Survey Research; 2011; Groves, R. M.
- Testing a single mode vs a mixed mode design; 2011; Laaksonen, S.
- The role of visual and aural stimuli in producing mode effects on answers to survey questions; 2011; Lynn, P., Hope, S., Campanelli, P., Nandi, A., Nicolaas, G., Jaeckle, A.
- Causes of Mode Effects on Survey Measurement ; 2011; Lynn, P., Campanelli, P., Nicolaas, G., Hope, S., Nandi, A., Jaeckle, A.
- Separating selection from mode effects when switching from single (CATI) to mixed mode design (CATI /...; 2011; Carstensen, J., Kriwy, P., Krug, G., Lange, C.
- Testing between-mode measurement invariance under controlled selectivity conditions; 2011; Klausch, L. T.
- A Comparison of CAPI and PAPI through a Randomized Field Experiment; 2011; De Weerdt, J.
- Changing research methods in Ukraine: CATI or Mixed-Mode Surveys?; 2011; Paniotto, V., Kharchenko, N.
- Drop-out rates during completion of an occupation search tree in web-surveys; 2011; Tijdens, K.
- Completing Web Surveys on Cell-enabled iPads.; 2011; Dayton, J., Driscoll, H.
- Use these five Web-based approaches to shrink your research timelines, costs ; 2011; Cutler, A. D.
- Comparing the Accuracy of RDD Telephone Surveys and Internet Surveys Conducted with Probability and...; 2011; Yeager, D. S., Krosnick, J. A., Chang, L. C., Javitz, H. S., Levindusky, M. S., Simpser, A.; Wang, R...
- The impact of next and back buttons on time to complete and measurement reliability in computer-based...; 2010; Gershon, R. C. et al.
- Lessons from a Randomised Experiment with Mixed-Mode Designs for a Household Panel Survey; 2010; Lynn, P., Uhrig, S.C. N., Burton, J.
- Statistics Canada's Process Automation of On-line Survey Development and CATI Data Integration; 2010; Dubois, M.-A.
- Operational Aspects of Recruiting High Internet Users via a CATI Screening on an RDD Frame; 2010; Batra, P.
- Uses of YouTube, and Other Web 2.0 Applications, in Data Collection; 2010; Franklin, J.
- Long-Term Efficacy of Sequential Mixed-Mode Designs on Response Rates and Cost in a Panel Survey; 2010; Levenstein, R. M., Barber, J. S., Gatny, H. H.
- Completing Web Surveys on Smart Phones; 2010; Dayton, J. J., Freedner, N., Hannah, K.
- Statistical foundations of cell-phone surveys; 2010; Wolter, K., Smith, P., Blumberg, S. J.
- Self-administered mobile surveys: Usability and (non)participation; 2010; Scherrer, S., Bosnjak, M.
- The impact of incentives and interview methods on response quantity and quality in diary- and booklet...; 2010; Bonke, J., Fallesen, P.
- Computer Literacy and the Accuracy of Substance Use Reporting in an ACASI Survey; 2010; Johnson, T. P., Fendrich, M., Mackesy-Amiti, M. E.
- A report on the 2009 Globalpark Market Research Software Survey; 2010; Macer, T., Wilson, S.
- Web-based versus paper-based data collection for the evaluation of teaching activity: empirical evidence...; 2010; Lalla, M., Ferrari, D.
- Understanding the Willingness to Participate in Mobile Surveys: Exploring the Role of Utilitarian, Affective...; 2010; Bosnjak, M., Metzger, G., Graef, L.