Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question: Web surveys of the general population are suspected to yield less representative samples than traditional survey modes for two major reasons. First, population coverage with internet access is incomplete in most countries. Second, response rates to Web surveys are generally lower than in traditional modes. Sequential mixed-mode strategies using personal (CAPI) or telephone (CATI) interviews have been suggested to cope with the presumed representativity problem. In this study we assess the underlying assumptions of this reasoning, i.e., first, whether a probability sample using Web for data collection is less representative than other modes and, second, whether CAPI or CATI possess properties that can compensate for bias when added in sequence to Web.
Methods & Data: We conducted an experiment based on a national probability sample of 8,800 persons in the context of the Dutch ‘Security Monitor’ survey. Persons were assigned to one out of four modes (Web, Mail, CATI, CAPI). Mailed invitations contained a link (Web), a questionnaire (Mail), or announced the contact by an interviewer (CAPI/CATI). After 4-8 weeks we approached every person again in a second wave, either by CAPI or CATI. We included questions on internet coverage in this wave. To assess representativity, background data was available from national registries.
Results: Though The Netherlands are a country of high internet coverage, the impact of under-coverage on representativity was strong (assessed by R-indicators). However, many of the coverage deficits were mitigated in the process of contact and cooperation. The final Web response sample was as representative as CAPI and even more representative than CATI and Mail. Mixing modes in sequence (i.e. Web followed by CAPI or CAPI+CATI) was not capable of compensating the deficits of Web beyond well-known net increases in response rates.
Added Value: Our results question two basic assumptions about Web surveys and mixed-mode designs. We suggest that Web surveys possess equally good or better response properties as traditional modes, if they are based on probability samples and population coverage with internet access is high. Also, from a representativity perspective, we did not find evidence in favour of using mixed-mode designs.
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Web Survey Bibliography (6390)
- How Representative are Google Consumer Surveys?: Results From an Analysis of a Google Consumer Survey...; 2013; Krishnamurty, P., Tanenbaum, E., Stern, M. J.
- One Drink or Two: Does Quantity Depicted in an Image Affect Web Survey Responses?; 2013; Charoenruk, N., Stange, M.
- A Comparison Between Screen/Follow Item Format and Yes/No Item Format on a Multi-Mode Federal Survey; 2013; Hernandez,S. J., Arakelyan, S. N., Welch, V. E.
- Using Multiple Modes in Follow-Up Contacts in Random-Digit Dialing Surveys; 2013; Chowdhury, P. P.
- Tablets and Smartphones and Netbooks, Oh My! Effects of Device Type on Respondent Behavior; 2013; Ross, H., Mendelson, J., Lackey, M.
- Impacts of Unit Nonresponse in a Recontact Study of Youth; 2013; Mendelson, J., Viera Jr., L.
- Multi-Mode Survey Administration: Does Offering Multiple Modes at Once Depress Response Rates?; 2013; Newsome, J., Levin, K., Langetieg, P., Vigil, M., Sebastiani, M.
- Responsive Design for Web Panel Data Collection; 2013; Bianchi, A., Biffignandi, S.
- Utilizing the Web in a Multi-Mode Survey; 2013; Venkataraman, L.
- Changing to a Mixed-Mode Design: The Role of Mode in Respondents’ Decisions About Participation...; 2013; Collins, D., Mitchell, M., Toomes, M.
- Comparing the Effects of Mode Design on Response Rate, Representativeness, and Cost Per Complete in...; 2013; Tully, R.
- Internet Response for the Decennial Census – 2012 National Census Test; 2013; Reiser, C.
- The Effects of Pushing Web in a Mixed-Mode Establishment Data Collection; 2013; Ellis, C.
- Using Web Ex to Conduct Usability Testing of an On-Line Survey Instrument; 2013; Stettler, K.
- Effects of Lotteries on Response Behavior in Online Panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- Lotteries and study results in market research online panels; 2013; Goeritz, A., Luthe, S. C.
- The Effects of Errors in Paradata on Weighting Class Adjustments: A Simulation Study; 2013; West, B. T.
- Using Paradata to Study Response to Within-Survey Requests; 2013; Sakshaug, J. W.
- Paradata for Coverage Research ; 2013; Eckman, S.
- Improving Surveys with Paradata: Analytic Uses of Process Information; 2013; Kreuter, F.
- Theory of adaptation or survival of the fittest?; 2013; Cavallaro, K.
- Online Fundraising Essentials, Second Edition; 2013; Stevenson, S. C.
- Tips for Evaluating Online Effectiveness; 2013; Stevenson, S. C.
- The Digital Divide: The internet and social inequality in international perspective; 2013; Ragnedda, M., Muschert, G.
- Ten questions to ask your online survey provider; 2013; Williams, D.
- Survey quality prediction system 2.0; 2013
- Practical tools for designing and weighting survey samples; 2013; Valliant, R. L., Daver, J. A., Kreuter, F.
- Paradata in web surveys; 2013; Callegaro, M.
- Report Of The AAPOR Task Force On Non-probability sampling; 2013; Baker, R. P., Brick, J. M., Bates, N., Battaglia, M. P., Couper, M. P., Dever, J. A., Gile, K. J., Tourangeau...
- Incentive effects; 2013; Goeritz, A.
- A nationwide web-based freight data collection; 2013; Samimi, A., Mohammadian, A., Kawamura, K.
- Mode Matters: Evaluating Response Comparability in a Mixed-Mode Survey; 2013; Bowyer, B. T., Rogowski, J. C.
- Comparing Survey Results Obtained via Mobile Devices and Computers: An Experiment With a Mobile Web...; 2013; de Bruijne, M., Wijnant, A.
- Cognitive Probes in Web Surveys: On the Effect of Different Text Box Size and Probing Exposure on Response...; 2013; Behr, D., Bandilla, W., Kaczmirek, L., Braun, M.
- The E-Interview in Qualitative Research; 2013; Bampton, R., Cowton, C., Downs, Y.
- Methodological Considerations of Qualitative Email Interviews; 2013; Nehls, K.
- Best Practice in Online Survey Research with Sensitive Topics; 2013; Kays, K., Keith, T. L., Broughal, M. T.
- Research Intentions are Nothing without Technology: Mixed-Method Web Surveys and the Coberen Wall of...; 2013; Ganassali, S., Rodriguez-Santos, C.
- Reducing Response Burden for Enterprises Combining Methods for Data Collection on the Internet; 2013; Vik, T.
- Measuring Wages Worldwide: Exploring the Potentials and Constraints of Volunteer Web Surveys; 2013; Steinmetz, S., Raess, D., Tijdens, K., de Pedraza, P.
- Using Web Surveys for Psychology Experiments: A Case Study in New Media Technology for Research; 2013; Peden, B. F., Tiry , A. M.
- The Distinctiveness of Online Research: Descriptive Assemblages, Unobtrusiveness, and Novel Kinds of...; 2013; Lanfrey, D.
- Sampling, Channels, and Contact Strategies in Internet Survey; 2013; Macrì, E., Tessitore, C.
- Advancing Research Methods with New Technologies; 2013; Sappleton, N.
- Data Quality in PC and Mobile Web Surveys; 2013; Mavletova, A. M.
- PDAs in socio-economic surveys: instrument bias, surveyor bias or both?; 2013; Escobal, J., Benites, S.
- Virtual research assistants: Replacing human interviewers by automated avatars in virtual worlds; 2013; Hasler, B. S., Tuchman, P., Friedman, D.
- Compared to a small, supervised lab experiment, a large, unsupervised web-based experiment on a previously...; 2013; Ryan, R. S., Wilde, M., Crist, S.
- From mixed-mode to multiple devices. Web surveys, smartphone surveys and apps: has the respondent gone...; 2013; Callegaro, M.
- Moving an established survey online – or not?; 2013; Barber, T., Chilvers, D., Kaul, S.