Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question:
Compared to other survey modes, web-surveys are more easily conducted worldwide. Due to the absence of proper sampling frames, most of these surveys will be volunteer surveys, either inviting respondents from an Internet panel or inviting web-visitors to complete a survey. For the latter ones, there is a three-step selection process, namely through the access to Internet, the interest in the website's topic and the decision to take up the web-survey. While most studies so far analysed selection bias for one or a few countries, this paper firstly explores the nature of selection bias for 28 countries and secondly analyses in how far cross-national differences in the observed selection bias can be attributed to explanations related to Internet access and social and cultural indices.
Methods & Data:
The paper analyses data of the worldwide, continuous, volunteer, multilingual, cross-country comparable WageIndicator web-survey on work and wages. Using the 2010 web-survey data, for the 28 countries of interest, simple weights have been computed for six categories (gender * 3 age groups) using labour force projection data from the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Country-level explanatory variables were taken from Internet Access Tables and from the Indices of Social Development (ISD-database). Besides the usual description of selection biases, multi-level analysis has been applied in order to account for differences within and between countries in an appropriate way.
Not surprisingly, in almost all countries, the underrepresentation in the survey increases with age. Moreover, in all age groups it is higher for women than for men. Across countries, the ISD “intergroup_cohesion” index correlates negatively with the underrepresentation of women aged 40+ (-0.62) and 30-39 (-.58). The “civic_activism” index only correlates negatively with the underrepresentation of women aged 40+ (-0.44). Surprisingly, the “gender_equality” index does not correlate with women's underrepresentation.
Most studies about selection bias have focused on one or a few countries, exploring within-country differences. Thanks to a large number of observations in a large number of countries, this paper adds to the body of knowledge by introducing country-level explanations for differences in response to volunteer web-surveys.
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Web Survey Bibliography - Web surveys (4182)
- Web Panel Representativeness; 2013; Bianchi, A., Biffignandi, S.
- Interactive applets on the Web for methods and statistics; 2013; Reips, U. -D., McClelland, G.
- Economic valuation in Web surveys; A review of the state of the art and best practices; 2013; Menegaki, A. N., Tsagarakis, K. P.
- Can creative web survey questionnaire design improve the response quality?; 2013; Angelovska, J., Mavrikiou, P. M.
- Utilization of High-Technology to Collect Health Risk Assessment Information from Medicare Members:...; 2013; Freedman, D., VanderHorst, N.
- Respondent Behavior Logging: An Opportunity for Online Survey Design; 2013; Sjoestroem, J., Rahman, M. H., Rafiq, A., Lochan, R., Agerfalk, P. J.
- Beyond Satisfaction Questionnaires: “Hacking” the Online Survey; 2013; Evans, A. L.
- Methodological Issues in the Design of Online Surveys for Measuring Unethical Work Behavior: Recommendations...; 2013; Wouters, K., Maesschalck, J., Peeters, C. F. W., Roosen, M.
- Use of mobile devices to answer online surveys: implications for research; 2013; Cunningham, J. A., Neighbors, C., Bertholet, N., Hendershot, C. S.
- Enhancing student engagement in student experience surveys: a mixed methods study; 2013; Webber, M., Lynch, S., Oluku, J.
- Where Am I? A Meta-Analysis of Experiments on the Effects of Progress Indicators for Web Surveys; 2013; Villar, A., Callegaro, M., Yang, Y.
- Comparison of Smartphone and Online Computer Survey Administration; 2013; Wells, T., Bailey, J., Link, M. W.
- Panel Conditioning in Difficult Attitudinal Questions; 2013; Binswanger, J., Schunk, D., Toepoel, V.
- Web Coverage in the UK and its Potential Impact on General Population Web Surveys; 2013; Callegaro, M.
- Issues of Coverage and Sampling in Web Surveys for the General Population; 2013; Lynn, P.
- Attitudes of Nebraska Residents on Nebraska Water Management; 2013; Dillman, D. A., Edwards, M. L.
- Attitudes of Washington Residents on Washington Water Management; 2013; Dillman, D. A., Edwards, M. L.
- A Comparison of Data Quality Across Modes in a Mixed-Mode Collection of Administrative Records; 2013; Worthy, M., Mayclin, D.
- To Click, Type, or Drag? Evaluating Speed of Survey Data Input Methods; 2013; Husser, J. A., Husser, J. A.
- Web psychosocial surveys in cancer survivorship - a methodological note; 2013; Santin, O., Mills, M., Treanor, C., Mc Donald, G., Donnelly, M.
- Internet visual media processing: a survey with graphics and vision applications; 2013; Hu, S.-M., Chen, T., Xu, K., Cheng, M.-M., Martin, R. R.
- Online Case Studies: HESI Exit Exam Scores and NCLEX-RN Outcomes; 2013; Young, A., Rose, G., Willson, P.
- The Challenges and Benefits of Distance Mentoring; 2013; Lach, H. W. et al
- Hail to Thee, Our Alma Mater: Alumni Role Identity and the Relationship to Institutional Support Behaviors...; 2013; McDearmon, J. T.
- Encouraging Record Use For Financial Asset Questions In A Web Survey; 2013; Couper, M. P., Ofstedal, M. B., Lee, S.
- Can Online Surveys Substitute Traditional Modes? An Error-Based Comparison of Online and On-Site Tourism...; 2013; Kim, N., Yu, X., Schwartz, Z.
- How incentives affect web-based survey response rates of athletic program donors; 2013; Alvarado, G., Callison, C.
- Investigating the Relationship among Prepaid Token Incentives, Response Rates, and Nonresponse Bias...; 2013; Parsons, N. L., Manierre, M. J.
- The Effect of Survey Mode on High School Risk Behavior Data: a Comparison between Web and Paper-based...; 2013; Raghupathy, S., Hahn-Smith, S.
- Web-Based Versus Traditional Paper Questionnaires: A Mixed-Mode Survey With a Nordic Perspective; 2013; Hohwue, L., Lyshol, H., Gissler, M., Hrafn Jonsson, S., Petzold, M., Obel, C.
- Going online with a face-to-face household panel: initial results from an experiment on the Understanding...; 2013; Jaeckle, A., Lynn, P., Burton, J.
- Targeted response inducement strategies on longitudinal surveys; 2013; Lynn, P.
- Permission email messages significantly increase gambler retention; 2013; Jolley, W., Lee, A., Mizerski, R., Sadeque, S.
- How virtual corporate social responsibility dialogs generate value: A framework and propositions; 2013; Korschun, D., Du, S.
- The moderating role of socio-semantic networks on online buzz diffusion; 2013; Lee, H., Lee, D. I., Kim, T., Kim, T., Lee, J.
- Discovering interest groups for marketing in virtual communities: An integrated approach; 2013; Wang, K. -Y., Wu, H. -J., Ting, I -H.
- Understanding service quality in a virtual travel community environment; 2013; Elliot, S., Li, G., Choi, C.
- Research note: E-store image, perceived value and perceived risk; 2013; Chang, E. -C., Tseng, Y. -F.
- Retail relationships in a digital age; 2013; Keeling, K., Keeling, D., McGoldrick, P.
- Gamification Master Class; 2013; Puleston, J.
- Research Communities in Asia Pacific: A review of similarities and contrasts; 2013; Poynter, R.
- Measuring Up: Impact of mobile and segmentation on respondent behaviour; 2013; Luck, K.
- Best of Both Worlds? Can we make convenience samples representative?; 2013; Doe, P.
- Multimode, Global Scale Usage: Understanding respondent scale usage across borders and devices; 2013; Pettit, F. A., Courtright, M.
- Doing real time research: Opportunities and challenges; 2013; Back, L., Lury, C., Zimmer, R.
- New social media, new social science?; 2013; Woodfield, K., Morrell, G.
- Digital technology and data collection; 2013; Henriksen, B., Jewitt, C., Price, S., Sakr, M.
- The impact of website content dimension and e-trust on e-marketing effectiveness: The case of Iranian...; 2013; Rahimnia, F., Farzaneh Hassanzadeh, J.
- Service with an e-smile: Employee authenticity and customer use of web-based support services; 2013; Turel, O., Connelly, C. E., Fisk, G. M.
- Survey Breakoffs in a Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview; 2013; McGonagle, K.