Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question:
Compared to other survey modes, web-surveys are more easily conducted worldwide. Due to the absence of proper sampling frames, most of these surveys will be volunteer surveys, either inviting respondents from an Internet panel or inviting web-visitors to complete a survey. For the latter ones, there is a three-step selection process, namely through the access to Internet, the interest in the website's topic and the decision to take up the web-survey. While most studies so far analysed selection bias for one or a few countries, this paper firstly explores the nature of selection bias for 28 countries and secondly analyses in how far cross-national differences in the observed selection bias can be attributed to explanations related to Internet access and social and cultural indices.
Methods & Data:
The paper analyses data of the worldwide, continuous, volunteer, multilingual, cross-country comparable WageIndicator web-survey on work and wages. Using the 2010 web-survey data, for the 28 countries of interest, simple weights have been computed for six categories (gender * 3 age groups) using labour force projection data from the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Country-level explanatory variables were taken from Internet Access Tables and from the Indices of Social Development (ISD-database). Besides the usual description of selection biases, multi-level analysis has been applied in order to account for differences within and between countries in an appropriate way.
Not surprisingly, in almost all countries, the underrepresentation in the survey increases with age. Moreover, in all age groups it is higher for women than for men. Across countries, the ISD “intergroup_cohesion” index correlates negatively with the underrepresentation of women aged 40+ (-0.62) and 30-39 (-.58). The “civic_activism” index only correlates negatively with the underrepresentation of women aged 40+ (-0.44). Surprisingly, the “gender_equality” index does not correlate with women's underrepresentation.
Most studies about selection bias have focused on one or a few countries, exploring within-country differences. Thanks to a large number of observations in a large number of countries, this paper adds to the body of knowledge by introducing country-level explanations for differences in response to volunteer web-surveys.
Conference Homepage (abstract) / (full text)
Web Survey Bibliography - Noncoverage & sampling (1365)
- Beauty is more than screen deep: Improving the web survey respondent experience through socially-present...; 2014; Casey, T. W., Poropat, A.
- Optimal Resource Allocation in Adaptive Survey Designs; 2013; Calinescu, M.
- Foreign workers in Saudi Arabia: a field study of role ambiguity, identification, information-seeking...; 2013; Showail, S. J., McLean Parks, J., Smith, F. L.
- Reaching and Hearing the Invisible: Organizational Research on Invisible Stigmatized Groups via Web...; 2013; Trau, R. N. C. et al.
- A web based management system for addressing census complexity: the Italian experience; 2013; Bruno, M., Giacummo, M., Silipo, M., Vaste, G.
- Internet as a new source of information for the production of official statistics. Experiences of Statistics...; 2013; Heerschap, N.
- Web panel surveys – can they be designed and used in a scientifically sound way?; 2013; Svensson , J.
- A standard with quality indicators for web panel surveys: a Swedish example; 2013; Nyfjaell, M.
- Web Panels for Official Statistics? ; 2013; Bethlehem, J., Cobben, F.
- The Role of Mode Preference Questions in Predicting Mode-Specific Response Propensities; 2013; Lynn, P., Kaminska, O.
- Using Internet Panel Surveys for Behavioral Health Surveillance; 2013; Gotway Crawford, C., Okoro, C. A., Dhingra, S., Akcin, H., Zhao, G., Ford, D., Pierannunzi, C.
- Estimating Mode Effects Without Bias: A Randomized Experiment to Compare Mode Effects Between Face-to...; 2013; Rivers, D., Vavreck, L.
- Proceedings of The 3rd International Conference: Quantitative And Qualitative Methodologies In The Economic...; 2013; Frangos, C. (ed.)
- How Mobile Stacks Up to Traditional Online: A Comparison of Studies; 2013; Knowles, R.
- Development of a Questionnaire and Cross-Sectional Survey of Patient eHealth Readiness and eHealth Inequalities...; 2013; Jones, R.
- Web Coverage in the UK and its Potential Impact on General Population Web Surveys; 2013; Callegaro, M.
- Issues of Coverage and Sampling in Web Surveys for the General Population; 2013; Lynn, P.
- Optimizing quality of response through adaptive survey designs; 2013; Schouten, B., Calinescu, M., Luiten, A.
- Attitudes of Nebraska Residents on Nebraska Water Management; 2013; Dillman, D. A., Edwards, M. L.
- Attitudes of Washington Residents on Washington Water Management; 2013; Dillman, D. A., Edwards, M. L.
- On the Impact of Response Patterns on Survey Estimates from Access Panels; 2013; Enderle, T., Muennich, R., Bruch, C.
- Reconceptualizing Survey Representativeness for Evaluating and Using Nonprobability Samples; 2013; Fan, D. P.
- Experiments with methods to reduce attrition in longitudinal surveys; 2013; Fumagalli, L., Laurie, H., Lynn, P.
- Targeted response inducement strategies on longitudinal surveys; 2013; Lynn, P.
- Measuring Up: Impact of mobile and segmentation on respondent behaviour; 2013; Luck, K.
- Best of Both Worlds? Can we make convenience samples representative?; 2013; Doe, P.
- Developing a New Mixed-Mode Methodology For a Provincial Park Camper Survey in British Columbia; 2013; Dyck, B. W.
- Mode effect analysis and adjustment in a split-sample mixed-mode Web/CATI survey; 2013; Kolenikov, S., Kennedy, C.
- Adjusting for bias in a mixed-mode CAWI survey on University students ; 2013; Clerici, R., Giraldo, A.
- The Technology Behind Mobile Research: Browsers vs. Apps ; 2013; Macer, T.
- The Attention Span of a Goldfish: Impacts of Survey Mobilization on Respondents ; 2013; Luck, K.
- Adding Observation to Copy Testing with Kids; 2013; Hurley, B., Salo, M.
- The State of Technology in Market Research; 2013; Macer, T.
- Effects of Sponsorship on Response: Mixed-Mode Web and Mail Surveying ; 2013; Edwards, M. L., Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J.
- Does left still feel right? The optimal position of answer boxes in Web surveys - revisited; 2013; Lenzner, T., Kaczmirek, L.,Galesic, M.
- A walking exercise on a tightrope: trying to balance coverage, probabilistic sampling and the costs...; 2013; Poggio, T.
- Comparability of substantive results between modes and incentive conditions in a probability-based telephone...; 2013; Pekari, N.
- Designing a Pilot to Introduce Web Collection in the UK Labour Force Survey; 2013; Merad, S.
- Data Collection Method Comparisons for the 2011 Fishing, Hunting, and Wildlife-Associated Recreation...; 2013; Herbstritt, M., Hornick, D.
- The comparability of Don't Know answers between CATI and CAWI modes; 2013; Pohjanpaa, K., Jarvensivu, M.
- Leveraging Auxiliary Data, Differential Incentives, and Survey Mode to Target Hard-to-Reach Groups in...; 2013; Link, M. W., Thu Burks, A.
- Does It Pay Off to Include Non-Internet Households in an Internet Panel? ; 2013; Leenheer, J., Scherpenzeel, A.
- Old versus New: The Comparative Efficiency of Mail and Internet Surveys of State Legislators.; 2013; Fisher, S. H., Herrick, R.
- Using Mixed-Mode Contacts in Client Surveys: Getting More Bang for Your Buck; 2013; Israel, G. D.
- The Online Statistical Survey As An Alternative To Traditional Methods; 2013; Dinu, S., Nitoiu, M., Pomazan, C.
- A probability-based web panel for UK policy research: some initial thoughts from a Government survey...; 2013; Littlechild, J.
- A probability-based web panel for the UK: What could it look like?; 2013; Nicolaas, G.
- Current UK provision of web panaels and Omnibus; 2013; Lagorio, C.
- What works? Getting the General Population To Go Online in a Mixed Mode Local Health Survey; 2013; Frigault, L.-R., Azzou, S. A. K., Molloy, E. J. K., Ammarguellat, F., Couture, M., Gratton, J.
- ONS Plans for Web Data Collection in LFS; 2013; Lound, C.