Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question:
Compared to other survey modes, web-surveys are more easily conducted worldwide. Due to the absence of proper sampling frames, most of these surveys will be volunteer surveys, either inviting respondents from an Internet panel or inviting web-visitors to complete a survey. For the latter ones, there is a three-step selection process, namely through the access to Internet, the interest in the website's topic and the decision to take up the web-survey. While most studies so far analysed selection bias for one or a few countries, this paper firstly explores the nature of selection bias for 28 countries and secondly analyses in how far cross-national differences in the observed selection bias can be attributed to explanations related to Internet access and social and cultural indices.
Methods & Data:
The paper analyses data of the worldwide, continuous, volunteer, multilingual, cross-country comparable WageIndicator web-survey on work and wages. Using the 2010 web-survey data, for the 28 countries of interest, simple weights have been computed for six categories (gender * 3 age groups) using labour force projection data from the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Country-level explanatory variables were taken from Internet Access Tables and from the Indices of Social Development (ISD-database). Besides the usual description of selection biases, multi-level analysis has been applied in order to account for differences within and between countries in an appropriate way.
Not surprisingly, in almost all countries, the underrepresentation in the survey increases with age. Moreover, in all age groups it is higher for women than for men. Across countries, the ISD “intergroup_cohesion” index correlates negatively with the underrepresentation of women aged 40+ (-0.62) and 30-39 (-.58). The “civic_activism” index only correlates negatively with the underrepresentation of women aged 40+ (-0.44). Surprisingly, the “gender_equality” index does not correlate with women's underrepresentation.
Most studies about selection bias have focused on one or a few countries, exploring within-country differences. Thanks to a large number of observations in a large number of countries, this paper adds to the body of knowledge by introducing country-level explanations for differences in response to volunteer web-surveys.
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Web Survey Bibliography (2070)
- Measurement error calibration in mixed-mode sample surveys; 2013; Buelens, B., van der Brakel, J.
- Optimal Resource Allocation in Adaptive Survey Designs; 2013; Calinescu, M.
- MOTUS: Modular online Time-Use Survey; 2013; Joeri, M., Ignace, G., van Tienoven, T. P., Djiwo, W.
- Response Burden in Official Business Surveys: Measurement and Reduction Practices of National Statistical...; 2013; Giesen, D., Bavdaz, M., Loefgren, T., Raymond-Blaess, V.
- Should the third reminder be sent? The role of survey response timing on web survey results; 2013; Rao, K., Pennington, J.
- Factors affecting the decision to participate in the internet option for the 2010 Census of Korea ; 2013; Lee, E., Kim, S.
- Web panel surveys – can they be designed and used in a scientifically sound way?; 2013; Svensson , J.
- A standard with quality indicators for web panel surveys: a Swedish example; 2013; Nyfjaell, M.
- Web Panels for Official Statistics? ; 2013; Bethlehem, J., Cobben, F.
- Assessing Nonresponse Bias in the Green Technologies and Practices Survey; 2013; Meekins, B., Sverchkov, M., Stang, S.
- Using an Item Response Theory Approach to Measure Survey Mode of Administration Effects: Analysis of...; 2013; Mariano, L. T., Elliott, M. N.
- The Role of Mode Preference Questions in Predicting Mode-Specific Response Propensities; 2013; Lynn, P., Kaminska, O.
- Model-Based Mode of Data Collection Switching from Internet to Mail in the American Community Survey; 2013; Chesnut, J.
- Estimating Mode Effects Without Bias: A Randomized Experiment to Compare Mode Effects Between Face-to...; 2013; Rivers, D., Vavreck, L.
- Lotteries and study results in market research online panels; 2013; Goeritz, A.; Luthe, S. C.
- Respondent Rewards: Money for Nothing?; 2013; Martin, P.
- Did I Do That? How Trap Questions Can Hurt Data Quality; 2013; Phillips, K.
- Web Panel Representativeness; 2013; Bianchi, A., Biffignandi, S.
- Can creative web survey questionnaire design improve the response quality?; 2013; Angelovska, J., Mavrikiou, P. M.
- Use of mobile devices to answer online surveys: implications for research; 2013; Cunningham, J. A., Neighbors, C., Bertholet, N., Hendershot, C. S.
- Enhancing student engagement in student experience surveys: a mixed methods study; 2013; Webber, M., Lynch, S., Oluku, J.
- Where Am I? A Meta-Analysis of Experiments on the Effects of Progress Indicators for Web Surveys; 2013; Villar, A., Callegaro, M., Yang, Y.
- Field Lessons From the Delivery of Questionnaires to Young Adults Using Mobile Phones; 2013; van Heerden, A. C., Norris, S. A., Tollman, S. M., Stein, A. D., Richter, L. M.
- Attitudes of Nebraska Residents on Nebraska Water Management; 2013; Dillman, D. A., Edwards, M. L.
- On the Impact of Response Patterns on Survey Estimates from Access Panels; 2013; Enderle, T., Muennich, R., Bruch, C.
- Reconceptualizing Survey Representativeness for Evaluating and Using Nonprobability Samples; 2013; Fan, D. P.
- Unit Nonresponse and Weighting Adjustments: A Critical Review; 2013; Brick, J. M.
- Encouraging Record Use For Financial Asset Questions In A Web Survey; 2013; Couper, M. P., Ofstedal, M. B., Lee, S.
- Can Online Surveys Substitute Traditional Modes? An Error-Based Comparison of Online and On-Site Tourism...; 2013; Kim, N., Yu, X., Schwartz, Z.
- How incentives affect web-based survey response rates of athletic program donors; 2013; Alvarado, G., Callison, C.
- Investigating the Relationship among Prepaid Token Incentives, Response Rates, and Nonresponse Bias...; 2013; Parsons, N. L., Manierre, M. J.
- Web-Based Versus Traditional Paper Questionnaires: A Mixed-Mode Survey With a Nordic Perspective; 2013; Hohwue, L., Lyshol, H., Gissler, M., Hrafn Jonsson, S., Petzold, M., Obel, C.
- Going online with a face-to-face household panel: initial results from an experiment on the Understanding...; 2013; Jaeckle, A., Lynn, P., Burton, J.
- Targeted response inducement strategies on longitudinal surveys; 2013; Lynn, P.
- Measuring Up: Impact of mobile and segmentation on respondent behaviour; 2013; Luck, K.
- Survey Breakoffs in a Computer-Assisted Telephone Interview; 2013; McGonagle, K.
- Developing a New Mixed-Mode Methodology For a Provincial Park Camper Survey in British Columbia; 2013; Dyck, B. W.
- Exploring factors associated with respondent mode choice for surveys using mobile devices.; 2013; Walton, L.
- Responsive design for mixed-mode panel data; 2013; Bianchi, A., Biffignandi, S.
- Adjusting for bias in a mixed-mode CAWI survey on University students ; 2013; Clerici, R., Giraldo, A.
- Comparative analysis of data from web and face-to-face surveys. A case study on e-commerce in young...; 2013; Cappello, C., Pellegrino, D.
- Specific mixed-mode methodologies to include sensory disabled people in quantitative surveys; 2013; Sebastien, F., Marc, J., Patrick, I.
- Investigating the Bias of Alternative Statistical Inference Methods in Sequential Mixed-Mode Surveys; 2013; Suzer-Gurtekin, Z., Heeringa, S. G., Valliant, R. L.
- Random versus Systematic Error in a Mixed Mode Online-Telephone Survey; 2013; Hox, J., Scherpenzeel, A., Boeve, A., Boeve, A., de Leeuw, E. D.
- Online Survey Participation via Mobile Devices: implications for nonresponse; 2013; Poggio, T., Bosnjak, M.
- Mobile devices a way to recruit hard-to-reach groups? Results from a pilot study comparing desk top...; 2013; Toepoel, V., Lugtig, P. J.
- The Attention Span of a Goldfish: Impacts of Survey Mobilization on Respondents ; 2013; Luck, K.
- Web questionnaires in official population surveys: Do's and don'ts First experiments and impacts...; 2013; Blanke, K.
- Effects of Sponsorship on Response: Mixed-Mode Web and Mail Surveying ; 2013; Edwards, M. L., Dillman, D. A., Smyth, J.
- Does left still feel right? The optimal position of answer boxes in Web surveys - revisited; 2013; Lenzner, T., Kaczmirek, L.,Galesic, M.