Web Survey Bibliography
Relevance & Research Question:
Compared to other survey modes, web-surveys are more easily conducted worldwide. Due to the absence of proper sampling frames, most of these surveys will be volunteer surveys, either inviting respondents from an Internet panel or inviting web-visitors to complete a survey. For the latter ones, there is a three-step selection process, namely through the access to Internet, the interest in the website's topic and the decision to take up the web-survey. While most studies so far analysed selection bias for one or a few countries, this paper firstly explores the nature of selection bias for 28 countries and secondly analyses in how far cross-national differences in the observed selection bias can be attributed to explanations related to Internet access and social and cultural indices.
Methods & Data:
The paper analyses data of the worldwide, continuous, volunteer, multilingual, cross-country comparable WageIndicator web-survey on work and wages. Using the 2010 web-survey data, for the 28 countries of interest, simple weights have been computed for six categories (gender * 3 age groups) using labour force projection data from the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Country-level explanatory variables were taken from Internet Access Tables and from the Indices of Social Development (ISD-database). Besides the usual description of selection biases, multi-level analysis has been applied in order to account for differences within and between countries in an appropriate way.
Not surprisingly, in almost all countries, the underrepresentation in the survey increases with age. Moreover, in all age groups it is higher for women than for men. Across countries, the ISD “intergroup_cohesion” index correlates negatively with the underrepresentation of women aged 40+ (-0.62) and 30-39 (-.58). The “civic_activism” index only correlates negatively with the underrepresentation of women aged 40+ (-0.44). Surprisingly, the “gender_equality” index does not correlate with women's underrepresentation.
Most studies about selection bias have focused on one or a few countries, exploring within-country differences. Thanks to a large number of observations in a large number of countries, this paper adds to the body of knowledge by introducing country-level explanations for differences in response to volunteer web-surveys.
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Web Survey Bibliography - 2012 (546)
- Optimizing Response Rates; 2012; Brick, J. M.
- Modes of Data Collection; 2012; Tourangeau, R.
- The Use and Effects of Incentives in Surveys; 2012; Singer, E.
- Probability vs. Non-probability Methods; 2012; Langer, G,
- Improving Question Design to Maximize Reliability and Validity; 2012; Krosnick, J. A.
- Respondent Attrition vs Data Attrition and Their Reduction; 2012; Olsen, R. J.
- Survey Interviewing: Deviations from the Script; 2012; Schaeffer, N. C.
- Sampling for Single and Multi-Mode Surveys using Address-Based Sampling; 2012; O'Muircheartaigh, C.
- What Human Language Technology can do for you (and vice versa); 2012; Liberman, M.
- Proxy Reporting; 2012; Cobb, C. L.
- The Impact of Survery Nonresponse on Survey Accuracy; 2012; Keeter, S.
- How accurate are surveys of objective phenomena?; 2012; Chang, L. C., Krosnick, J. A.
- An Empirical Investigation of the Role of the Email Contact in Web Survey Response Rates; 2012; Hsu, H.-Y., Lai, Y.-H., Chin, H.-Y.
- Measure the response burden in the Swedish Intrastat system; 2012; Weideskog, F.
- Mode and non-response effects and their treatment; 2012; Chrysanthopoulos, S., Georgostathi, A.
- What can be said about quality in the Central Population Register based on a self-completion survey...; 2012; Falnes-Dalheim, E., Pedersen, H. E.
- Improving the quality of complex surveys: The case of the EU Labour Force Survey ; 2012; van der Valk, J.
- Pros and cons of Internet based User Satisfaction Surveys; 2012; Consoli, A., Matsulevits, L.
- The re-engineering of the Structural Earnings survey process: Mixed - Mode data collection and new E...; 2012; Cardinaleschi, S., De Santis, S., Rocci, F., Spinelli, V.
- Between demand and reality: Ensuring efficiency and quality in pretesting questionnaires; 2012; Sattelberger, S., Blanke, K.
- How to provide high data quality in online-questionnaires: Setting guidelines in design; 2012; Tries, S., Nebel, S., Blanke, K.
- Boosting Web pick-up Rates by referring to Compliance Principles ; 2012; Falnes-Dalheim, E., Haraldsen, G., Sundvoll, A.
- Choosing a Data Collection Approach: Mixed Mode Design Experiences in Statistics Finland; 2012; Taskinen, P., Kiianmaa, N.
- Ebook readings jumps, print book reading declines; 2012; Rainie, L., Duggan, M.
- Does mentioning "Some People" and "Other People" in an opinion question improve...; 2012; Yeager, D. S., Krosnick, J. A.
- Digital Divides: A connectivity continuum for the United States. Data from the 2011 Current Population...; 2012; File, T.
- Developments and the impact of smart technology; 2012; Macer, T.
- How Should Debriefing Be Undertaken in Web-Based Studies? Findings From a Randomized Controlled Trial...; 2012; McCambridge, J., Kypri, K., Wilson, A.
- Better customer in sight in real time; 2012; Macdonald, E., Wilson, H. N., Konus, H.
- Best practices in data cleaning: A complete guide to everything you need to do before and after collecting...; 2012; Osborne, J. W.
- Benchmarking for better surveys; 2012; Nallan, S.
- An experimental investigation of the effects of noncontingent and contingent incentives in recruiting...; 2012; Lavrakas, P. J., Dennis, J. M., Peugh, J., Shand-Lubbers, J., Lee, E., Peugh, J., Charlebois, O., Murakami...
- Adult gadget ownership over time (2006-2012); 2012
- Subjective Well-being Of Spanish Workers: Continuous Voluntary Web Survey Examination; 2012; de Pedraza, P., Guzi, M.
- 28 Questions to Help Buyers of Online Samples; 2012
- 2010 ACS Content Test Evaluation Report Covering Computer and Internet ; 2012; Shin, H. B.
- Specific mixed-mode methodology to reach sensory disabled people in quantitative surveys; 2012; Fontaine, S.
- Response Mode Choice and the Hard-to-Interview in the American Community Survey; 2012; Nichols, E. M., Horwitz, R., Guarino Tancreto, J.
- Recruiting in an Internet panel using respondent driven sampling; 2012; Schonlau, M.
- A Choice in Mode: A Solution for Increasing Response Rates of Hard-to-Survey Populations?; 2012; Haan, M., Ongena, Y. P.
- The Feasibility of Conducting a Web Survey Using Respondent Driven Sampling among Transgenders in the...; 2012; Kappelhof, J.
- The role of topic interest and topic salience in online panel web surveys.; 2012; Keusch, F.
- Multi-Language Multi-Continent B2B Community Panel: How B2B research can effectively span the world; 2012; Morden, M., Accomando, E.
- Can Survey Gaming Techniques Cross Continents? Examining cross cultural reactions to creative questioning...; 2012; Puleston, J.
- Facing The Future Webcams as a survey tool in China; 2012; Gordon, A., Llewellyn, T., Gu, E.
- Device Diversity: Understanding the complexity of varied devices for taking surveys – Case study...; 2012; Pearson, C., Backlund, K., Veling, L., Tsvelik, M., Jehoel, S.
- Research Goes Mobile: Findings from initial smartphone application research; 2012; Dubreuil, C., Joubert, S.
- Research in the Mobile Mindset: Exploring the unexplored in the mobile research space; 2012; Willems, A., Veris, E., Verhaeghe, A.
- Better Answers to Basic Questions: Enhancing the accuracy of online reach and audience metrics; 2012; van Dam, P. H., van Ossenbruggen, R., Voorend, R.
- Rules of engagement: The war against poorly engaged respondents - guidelines for elimination; 2012; Gittelman, S. H., Trimarchi, E.