Web Survey Bibliography
Collecting high quality data in surveys of students and low-income populations is critical for many studies in social science. Research indicates small, monetary pre-incentives are most effective in increasing response rates; less effective are post-incentives and lotteries, which are offered contingent upon completion of the survey. However, little is known about the effectiveness of large cash post-incentives relative to lotteries for cash or gifts. Moreover, given growing constraints on research funds, research is needed to determine which types of incentives are most cost-effective. In this study we consider the effectiveness of various types of post-incentives with a low-income population: college students receiving Pell Grants (a federal means tested form of financial aid). In particular, we assess responsiveness to a cash post-incentive relative to lotteries offering monetary or nonmonetary incentives. A stratified random sample of Pell Grant recipients that were initially enrolled in Wisconsin public higher education in 2008 (N=3,000) and surveyed in their first semester, then followed over time whether they remained enrolled in school or not. All panel members were initially mailed a $5 cash pre-incentive and invitation to complete a web survey in 2011. Nonresponders received up to three email reminders and then sent a mail SAQ. Respondents were randomly assigned to the following post-incentive groups:
• Condition 1: no post-incentive
• Condition 2: $10 post-incentive
• Condition 3: inclusion in a lottery for $50 (paid out to 25 winners)
• Condition 4: inclusion in a lottery for an iPad
The analysis includes:
• Effects of the experimental treatments on unit and item nonresponse.
• Effects of incentives on nonresponse bias, looking at survey reports, reported civic engagement and linked administrative data
• Differences in participation across incentive groups looking at past participation for this study.
• Analysis of cost variation among the treatments.
Conference Homepage (abstract)
Web Survey Bibliography - Dykema, J. (10)
- Effects of E-Mailed Versus Mailed Invitations and Incentives on Response Rates, Data Quality, and Costs...; 2012; Dykema, J., Stevenson, J., Klein, L., Kim, Y., Day, B.
- What are the Odds? Lotteries versus Cash Incentives. Response Rates, Cost and Data Quality for a Web...; 2012; Stevenson, J., Dykema, J., Klein, L., Cyffka, K., Goldrick-Rab, S.
- Effects of Post-Incentives on Response Rates, Costs, and Response Quality in a Web Survey of College...; 2011; Stevenson, J., Dykema, J., Cyffka, K., Klein, L., Goldrick-Rab, S.
- Questions for Surveys: Current Trends and Future Directions; 2011; Schaeffer, N. C., Schaeffer, N. C.
- Incentives, Research-based Best Practices; 2011; Dykema, J.
- Effects of Incentives and Prenotification on Response Rates and Costs in a National Web Survey of Physicians...; 2011; Bonham, V., Day, B., Dykema, J., Sellers, S., Stevenson, J.
- Designing Questions for Web Surveys: Effects of Check-List, Check-All, and Stand-Alone Response Formats...; 2011; Dykema, J., Schaeffer, N. C., Beach, J., Lein, V., Day, B.
- Effects of Mode and Incentives on Response Rates, Costs, and Response Quality in a Mixed Mode Survey...; 2011; Stevenson, J., Dykema, J., Kniss, C., Black, P., Moberg, P.
- The Use of Advance Contact, Monetary Incentives, and Lotteries to Increase Response Rates in a Web Survey...; 2009; Stevenson, J., Dykema, J., Day, D., Bonham, V., Sellers, S.
- Face-to-Face Surveys; 2008; Dykema, J., Basson, D., Schaeffer, N. C.