# Web Survey Bibliography

This article investigates estimation of finite population totals in the presence of univariate or multivariate auxiliary information. Estimation is equivalent to attaching weights to the survey data. We focus attention on the several weighting systems that can be associated with a given amount of auxiliary information and derive a weighting system with the aid of a distance measure and a set of calibration equations. We briefly mention an application to the case in which the information consists of known marginal counts in a two- or multi-way table, known as generalized raking. The general regression estimator (GREG) was conceived with multivariate auxiliary information in mind. Ordinarily, this estimator is justified by a regression relationship between the study variable y and the auxiliary vector x. But we note that the GREG can be derived by a different route by focusing instead on the weights. The ordinary sampling weights of the kth observation is 1/π<sub>k</sub>, where π<sub>k</sub> is the inclusion probability of k. We show that the weights implied by the GREG are as close as possible, according to a given distance measure, to the 1/π<sub>k</sub> while respecting side conditions called calibration equations. These state that the sample sum of the weighted auxiliary variable values must equal the known population total for that auxiliary variable. That is, the calibrated weights must give perfect estimates when applied to each auxiliary variables and the study variable means that the weights that perform well for the auxiliary variable also should perform well for the study variable. The GREG uses the auxiliary information efficiently, so the estimates are precise; however, the individual weights are not always without reproach. For example, negative weights can occur, and in some applications this does not make sense. It is natural to seek the root of the dissatisfaction in the underlying distance measure. Consequently, we allow alternative distance measures that satisfy only a set of minimal requirements. Each distance measure leads, via the calibration equations, to a specific weighting system and thereby to a new estimator. These estimators form a family of calibration estimators. We show that the GREG is a first approximation to all other members of the family; all are asymptotically equivalent to the GREG, and the variance estimator already known for the GREG is recommended for use in any other member of the family. Numerical features of the weights and ease of computation become more than anything else the bases for choosing between the estimators. The reasoning is applied to calibration on known marginals of a two-way frequency table. Our family of distance measures leads in this case to a family of generalized raking procedures, of which classical raking ratio is one.

Homepage (Abstract)

# Web survey bibliography (8390)

- Displaying Videos in Web Surveys: Implications for Complete Viewing and Survey Responses; 2017; Mendelson, J.; Lee Gibson, J.; Romano Bergstrom, J. C.
- Using experts’ consensus (the Delphi method) to evaluate weighting techniques in web surveys not...; 2017; Toepoel, V.; Emerson, H.
- Mind the Mode: Differences in Paper vs. Web-Based Survey Modes Among Women With Cancer; 2017; Hagan, T. L.; Belcher, S. M.; Donovan, H. S.
- Answering Without Reading: IMCs and Strong Satisficing in Online Surveys; 2017; Anduiza, E.; Galais, C.
- Ideal and maximum length for a web survey; 2017; Revilla, M.; Ochoa, C.
- Social desirability bias in self-reported well-being measures: evidence from an online survey; 2017; Caputo, A.
- Web-Based Survey Methodology; 2017; Wright, K. B.
- Handbook of Research Methods in Health Social Sciences; 2017; Liamputtong, P.
- Lessons from recruitment to an internet based survey for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy: merits of...; 2017; Davies, B.; Kotter, M. R.
- Web Survey Gamification - Increasing Data Quality in Web Surveys by Using Game Design Elements; 2017; Schacht, S.; Keusch, F.; Bergmann, N.; Morana, S.
- Effects of sampling procedure on data quality in a web survey; 2017; Rimac, I.; Ogresta, J.
- Comparability of web and telephone surveys for the measurement of subjective well-being; 2017; Sarracino, F.; Riillo, C. F. A.; Mikucka, M.
- Achieving Strong Privacy in Online Survey; 2017; Zhou, Yo.; Zhou, Yi.; Chen, S.; Wu, S. S.
- A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Incentives on Response Rate in Online Survey Studies; 2017; Mohammad Asire, A.
- Telephone versus Online Survey Modes for Election Studies: Comparing Canadian Public Opinion and Vote...; 2017; Breton, C.; Cutler, F.; Lachance, S.; Mierke-Zatwarnicki, A.
- Text message link to online survey: a new highly effective method of longitudinal data collection; 2017; Soon, R.; Salcedo, J.; Kaneshiro, B.
- Examining Factors Impacting Online Survey Response Ratesin Educational Research: Perceptions of Graduate...; 2017; Saleh, A.; Bista, K.
- Usability Testing for Survey Research; 2017; Geisen, E.; Romano Bergstrom, J. C.
- Paradata as an aide to questionnaire design: Improving quality and reducing burden; 2017; Timm, E.; Stewart, J.; Sidney, I.
- Fieldwork monitoring and managing with time-related paradata; 2017; Vandenplas, C.
- Interviewer effects on onliner and offliner participation in the German Internet Panel; 2017; Herzing, J. M. E.; Blom, A. G.; Meuleman, B.
- Interviewer Gender and Survey Responses: The Effects of Humanizing Cues Variations; 2017; Jablonski, W.; Krzewinska, A.; Grzeszkiewicz-Radulska, K.
- Millennials and emojis in Spain and Mexico.; 2017; Bosch Jover, O.; Revilla, M.
- Where, When, How and with What Do Panel Interviews Take Place and Is the Quality of Answers Affected...; 2017; Niebruegge, S.
- Comparing the same Questionnaire between five Online Panels: A Study of the Effect of Recruitment Strategy...; 2017; Schnell, R.; Panreck, L.
- Who fails and who passes instructed response item attention checks in web surveys?; 2017; Gummer, T.; Rossman, J.; Silber, H.
- Nonresponses as context-sensitive response behaviour of participants in online-surveys and their relevance...; 2017; Wetzlehuetter, D.
- Do distractions during web survey completion affect data quality? Findings from a laboratory experiment...; 2017; Wenz, A.
- Predicting Breakoffs in Web Surveys; 2017; Mittereder, F.; West, B. T.
- Measuring Subjective Health and Life Satisfaction with U.S. Hispanics; 2017; Lee, S.; Davis, R.
- Humanizing Cues in Internet Surveys: Investigating Respondent Cognitive Processes; 2017; Jablonski, W.; Grzeszkiewicz-Radulska, K.; Krzewinska, A.
- A Comparison of Emerging Pretesting Methods for Evaluating “Modern” Surveys; 2017; Geisen, E., Murphy, J.
- The Effect of Respondent Commitment on Response Quality in Two Online Surveys; 2017; Cibelli Hibben, K.
- How to encourage people to complete online surveys when using a different contact mode? A summary and...; 2017; Nicolaas, G.; Smith, Pa.
- Pushing from telephone to web: a low-cost and effective way to conduct national election studies; 2017; Kartsounidou, E.; Andreadis, I.
- Address-based Online Surveying (ABOS): The impact of design features on response ; 2017; Fitzpatrick, A.; Williams, Jo.
- Notes from a Push2web(+mail) survey: the ISSP 2014 Citizenship survey in Spain; 2017; Mendez, M.
- Pushing to web in the ISSP; 2017; Jonsdottir, G. A.; Dofradottir, A. G.; Einarsson, H. B.
- The 2016 Canadian Census: An Innovative Wave Collection Methodology to Maximize Self-Response and Internet...; 2017; Mathieu, P.
- Quantitative testing of the most effective advance communication strategies for a mixed mode (including...; 2017; Phelps, A.
- Transformed respondent engagement strategy; an overview of the research at ONS to develop respondent...; 2017; Wilson, L.; Nickson, S.
- Push2web or less is more? Experimental evidence from a mixed-mode population survey at the community...; 2017; Neumann, R.; Haeder, M.; Brust, O.; Dittrich, E.; von Hermanni, H.
- The worldwide increase in use of web-push methods that start with a mail contact; what have we learned...; 2017; Dillman, D. A.
- In search of best practices; 2017; Kappelhof, J. W. S.; Steijn, S.
- Redirected Inbound Call Sampling (RICS); A New Methodology ; 2017; Krotki, K.; Bobashev, G.; Levine, B.; Richards, S.
- An Empirical Process for Using Non-probability Survey for Inference; 2017; Tortora, R.; Iachan, R.
- The perils of non-probability sampling; 2017; Bethlehem, J.
- A Comparison of Two Nonprobability Samples with Probability Samples; 2017; Zack, E. S.; Kennedy, J. M.
- A bootstrap method for estimating the sampling variation in point estimates from quota samples; 2017; Kuha, J.; Sturgis, P.
- Investigation into the use of weighting adjustments for non-probability online panel samples; 2017; Neiger, D.; Pennay, D. W.; Ward, A. C.; Lavrakas, P. J.